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First aid and treatment for sprain of the hand


Stretching the wrist means a negative effect on the ligaments that are in the hand. These ligaments consist of connective fibers, the task of which is to securely fix the bones and ensure functional mobility.

As a result of traumatic effects, connective fibers can be micro-fractured. This does not seriously affect the functions of the hand, nevertheless, there is still some limitation in the form of painful manifestations during its movements. The occurrence of a wrist sprain is a fairly common situation and the severity of the injury is determined by the number of damaged fibers.

Sprained wrists can occur with any traumatic effect on the brush, if the strength of this effect exceeds the original strength of the connective fibers. Any category of people can get such an injury, regardless of age and occupation. The greatest risk group is made up of professional athletes, however, in everyday life it is often possible to get an excessive effect on the limb. The main reasons include the following situations:

  • Work with lifting heavy objects.
  • Cases of falls with focus on the brush.
  • Hitting your wrist or dropping heavy objects on your wrist.
  • Long-term execution of uniform brush movements.

Sprain hazard

Most sprains in the wrist do not cause serious discomfort and should be treated at home. The greatest danger is severe cases of stretching, when there is a fairly extensive destruction of the ligaments or their complete rupture with the bone at the junction. In such cases, medical assistance is necessary due to the occurrence of excessive mobility in the hand, which is eliminated by restoring the integrity of the ligamentous apparatus through surgery.

Distinctive symptoms

Despite the prevalence of stretching, not every person can determine its manifestation. It is mainly accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • Pain manifestations of a different nature.
  • The appearance of a moderately sharp pain during rotation with a brush.
  • The manifestation of edema in the soft tissues.
  • In case of severe tearing, redness or blueness of the skin.
  • Impaired mobility in the hand.
  • When feeling, increased pain.


Determination of stretching occurs when the victim is questioned about the injury and the examination of the injured arm. In case of serious pain effects and severe edema, joint radiography or ultrasound is prescribed to more accurately assess the condition of the ligaments. The use of such techniques can sufficiently determine the seriousness of the wrist.

Wrist Sprain Treatment

The measures used to restore the normal condition of the hand depend on the degree of gaps in the wrist.

  1. Immediately after receiving the effect on the brush apply a cold compress. This will prevent too much swelling and reduce pain. If after some time improvement does not occur, you need to go to the hospital.
  2. Recommended provide peace for the entire limb. For this, various approaches of immobilization are used in the form of bandaging or the use of an elastic bandage. If there is an increase in the arising edema, it is necessary that the limb be in an elevated position. Immobilization prevents unnecessary muscle contraction and proper fixation, this helps to relieve pain effects.
  3. For severe pain can be prescribed for admission painkillers. In the form of the main effect, external ointments with various compositions are used, their main effect is to remove inflammatory processes and edema.
  4. As prescribed by the doctor, in the first few days during the day, you need to use cold packs. After that, ointments of a warming type are superimposed in the place of stretching.

As a rehabilitation and to enhance the actions of therapeutic agents, physiotherapy procedures can be prescribed. Among them, the most common electrophoresis with drugs, the effects of wave therapy.

Mud treatment has a particularly strong effect of restoration and strengthening of ligaments. During the recovery period, it is necessary to abandon any significant loads, if this condition is not met, then some complications may develop over time.

The structure of the hand and ligaments

The brush is the most fragile part of the hand. It consists of wrists, metacarpals and 5 fingers. Fine motor skills are provided by the complex structure of this part of the limb. Each section consists of bone tissue, tendons and joints. The latter are strengthened by numerous ligaments located along the entire surface of the wrist, including the palmar, medial, lateral and dorsal parts, as well as between the bones of the hand. Together they make up strengthening ligamentous apparatusconnecting all bones and joints together.

It is interesting! Most often, weak back ligaments are prone to injuries. Located on the bend, they not only provide the mobility of the hand (bending, extension and circular movements), but also take on the main load at the time of the fall.

The second bone row and metacarpophalangeal joints are also strengthened by additional ligaments. They limit the movement of the fingers to the sides and even with significant muscle contraction withstand heavy loads.

Causes of stretching

Ligaments are used to strengthen the joints of the hand during any action. At the time of bending the arm beyond the permissible limits they are stretched. Among the reasons that can provoke excessive tension of the ligaments, it should be noted:

  • A sudden fall, when a person tries to mitigate the injury by exposing his hand,
  • Swipe,
  • Stretching at the moment of lifting a heavy object,
  • Careless movement when performing exercises on the sports ground, professional duties or at home,
  • Repeated trauma to the joints.

It is important! Often, monotonous operations that require a constant load on the hand can lead to sprains. For example, knitting, playing musical instruments, loading and unloading, etc.

Signs of sprains

The characteristic symptoms of ligament damage differ depending on the severity of the resulting sprain:

  • With a mild degree - intensifying pain when trying to bend at the site of damaged ligaments and a slight swelling (possible hematoma),
  • Sprains moderate severity accompanied by severe pain, redness at the site of the injury and subcutaneous hemorrhage. In this case, there is a noticeable swelling in the area of ​​the injured area,
  • Severe degree characterized by sharp constant pain, complete immobility of the limb, impaired functionality, the presence of extensive hematoma and severe edema.

First aid

After receiving an injury, the victim must be given first aid:

  • Give the body a comfortable position and place your hand on a hill to minimize swelling,
  • Provide immobility in the affected area. To do this, do not wrap the arm too tightly with an elastic bandage. Remember that tight bandaging can cause circulatory disorders,
  • You can reduce the likelihood of internal hemorrhage and anesthetize the damaged area by attaching it cold compress (ice pack or hot water bottle)
  • If the pain is unbearable, it is necessary to give the patient any analgesic,
  • Deliver the victim to the emergency room or call a medical team.

It is important! Ligament breaks are considered the most dangerous. The presence of such an injury can be determined by indirect signs, one of which is unnatural joint mobility.

Hand Sprain Treatment

Sprained ligaments return to their natural position on their own. In order for the recovery process to go quickly and successfully, keep the damaged joint stillby applying an elastic bandage.

During the first two days apply cold every 3-4 hours with sessions of 10-15 minutes. On the third day, you can use warming ointments and resort to traditional medicine.

It is important! A properly applied dressing helps to speed up the healing process and prevent possible complications. The bandage must be applied crosswise without disturbing the free circulation of blood. To fix the hand in a stable motionless position, it is better to additionally hang it with a bandage or scarf.

Medicines and ointments

To reduce pain and relieve swelling, the doctor may recommend the following drugs:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Nurofen, Ibuprofen and others),
  • Pain medications (e.g. Analgin),
  • Cooling ointments in the first 2 days (for example, Gevkamen),
  • Warming and analgesic ointments / gels (Diclofenac gel, Finalgon, Fastum gel, Nimesulide and others). Lubricate the affected area several times a day. It is noteworthy that the tool can be used only on the third day, - Absorbable gels (Apizartron). They can be used only after removal of the edema.

Folk remedies

With the approval of the attending physician, you can supplement the course of therapy with alternative methods:

  • Onion compress. Grind the vegetable in a blender and add sugar to it. Put the resulting mixture on cheesecloth and attach to the place of stretching for 4-6 hours. If desired, you can also add to the tool raw chopped potatoes, medical clay and kefir,
  • Flour cake. It is a home analogue of gypsum. Stir the flour with salt and a little water. Apply the mixture to the joint and fix it with a bandage. You can remove the bandage after the dough has finally hardened,
  • Blue clay. Apply appliqués before bedtime.

Rehabilitation period

The rehabilitation period depends on the complexity of the sprain, timely first aid and surgical assistance, as well as the individual characteristics of the human body (general health and immune system).

Since the main method of treatment is immobilization of the damaged area, it is necessary to smoothly return the full functionality of the hand develop joints, gradually increasing the load.

It is important! Sharp movements during the rehabilitation period can provoke a relapse and cause inflammation in the joints.

Healing time

With slight stretching, you can restore the ligaments in just 2-3 days. You do not need to contact the clinic for this.

Medium damage also does not require much time to repair. The treatment period takes from 3 to 7 days, and the rehabilitation course -monthmonth.

With severe stretching, you will have to go to the hospital. The therapeutic course will take few weeksafter which the patient will have a long rehabilitation period (from 1 to 3 months).

Exercise therapy and exercises

A set of exercises for physiotherapy exercises is selected by a traumatologist. The main task is to restore the previous functionality of the hand, as well as returning the ligaments of elasticity and mobility.

It is important! It is necessary to increase the amplitude of movements gradually so as not to cause complications and not provoke a relapse.

In some cases, experts recommend supplement Exercise therapy lung massage, which can be performed only after 3-5 days in the absence of pronounced symptoms.


In the treatment of stretching, physical procedures play an important role:

  • Electrophoresis
  • Laser and magnetotherapy
  • Paraffin baths,
  • Mud therapy
  • Balneotherapy,
  • Joint development exercises.

It is important! All procedures are prescribed by a physiotherapist, based on the complexity of the injury and the general health of the patient.

Sprain Prevention

To avoid sprains of the hand ligaments during physical and monotonous work, it is necessary to take small breaks and give rest to stressed joints.

In the cold season, it is important to be careful when crossing slippery areas. When training in the gym, you must use special protective gloves.

During work related to weight lifting, focus on the legs, evenly distributing the load on the whole body.

What is stretching?

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Ligaments consist of dense connective tissue fibers and securely fix the bones, holding them in position. By their nature, they cannot be elastic. Therefore, they are not able to stretch. Thus, the term “sprain” does not accurately reflect the nature of the pathological changes in them.

Under the influence of traumatic factors, part of the connective tissue fibers can be torn. Such microcracks do not cause significant functional disorders, but are accompanied by painful sensations. It is this phenomenon in medicine that is called sprain.

In addition to sprains, there are tears and tears. Treating them is much more difficult. Restoring the integrity of damaged structures is usually only possible with the help of an operation.

What to do when stretching ligaments on the arm

First of all, the patient needs to stop doing work. The affected limb should be immobilized, that is, immobilized. To do this, it is better to fix the arm with a tight bandage from an elastic bandage. To relieve pain, a cold compress or ice should be applied to the hand.

Even “neglected” joint problems can be cured at home! Just remember to smear it once a day.

You can treat mild sprain of the hand at home. In more severe cases, you must definitely see a doctor. He will examine you and prescribe the necessary treatment. If you find a fracture, a serious tear, or a tear, be prepared for a cast or even surgery.

Never apply ice directly to the skin. So you risk getting frostbite. Better put it in a plastic bag and wrap it with a dry, clean cloth.

How to treat a sprain on the arm

For the relief of pain and inflammation, ointments based on NSAIDs are most often used (Bystrumgel, Indovazin, Dolgit) In severe cases, decongestants, angioprotective, absorbable, warming or cooling agents may additionally be prescribed. They promote resorption of hematomas, improve microcirculation in tissues, strengthen vascular walls and help to quickly remove swelling.

Physiotherapy, which include in the treatment of sprains:

  • paraffin therapy,
  • drug electrophoresis
  • magnetotherapy
  • wave therapy
  • mud therapy.

In the recovery period, the patient requires physiotherapy exercises. Special exercises help restore normal range of motion, fully restore the function of the affected limb.

The most important step in the treatment of sprains is full immobilization. Experts advise applying an elastic bandage for 7-14 days after an injury. It is better to remove it at night.

What will happen if not treated

If untreated, sprain is complicated by acute and then chronic tendonitis. Pathology is characterized by the development of an inflammatory process with a progressive violation of the functions of the hand. Subsequently, the inflamed ligaments are ossified, that is, calcium salts are deposited in them. At this stage, a person is concerned about chronic pain and severe stiffness of the arm. It becomes impossible to cure pathology in a conservative way.

With stretch marks of the III degree, the lack of medical care is fraught with an irrevocable loss of limb functions. The victim loses the ability to perform certain movements with his fingers and brush. An operation performed inopportune may not help to fix the defect.

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Symptoms of arm sprain

Signs of sprain of the hand are, first of all:

  • a feeling of severe pain, which becomes even stronger when trying to move your hand (by the way, in many cases, sprains can bring pain more than with fractures),
  • the appearance of puffiness in the damaged area,
  • impossibility or limited movement in the damaged area,
  • feeling of pain when trying to touch the damaged area,
  • redness of the damaged area or the appearance of bruises and hemorrhages on it.

If the arm begins to hurt a few hours after the injury, this indicates that there is a sprain, not of the ligaments, but of the muscle fibers. Pain during stretching, as a rule, appears immediately, but it can gradually increase, intensifying throughout the day.

If during the injury the patient heard a characteristic crack, then this is most likely a fracture or rupture of the tendon, but not a sprain of the ligamentous apparatus.

For a more accurate diagnosis, you need to see a doctor. Usually they go to the nearest trauma center, where the doctor will accurately indicate the nature of the damage and provide first aid.

Hand sprain

Injuries to the ligamentous mechanism of the hand are determined by a violation of their integrity, hemorrhages in nearby tissues and articular cavities.

Often, strains of the radial and ulnar collateral ligaments are found. A sudden change in the amplitude of movement in the radial direction will certainly lead to stretching or complete rupture of the collateral radial ligament.

Sprain of the ligaments of the hand may occur due to trauma or prolonged monotonous load on the hand. Immediately after receiving the injury, severe pain appears, hemorrhage forms at the site of damage, the functionality of the hand is impaired. Gradually increasing swelling of the tissues in the area of ​​the brush.

An X-ray examination will indirectly confirm sprain: the images are taken at the most possible abduction of the hand in the radial joint, and the dimensions of the joint gap are equal to the gap in the paired intact joint.

Finger sprain

Injury of the ligaments of the fingers is quite common in those who are actively involved in climbing. Ring ligaments of the fingers are most prone to stretching.

Annular ligaments take up the bulk of the load, especially in situations where it is necessary to use an active finger grip of something. If the load to which the ligaments are subjected exceeds the permissible norm, or there is a sharp supply of load, you can stretch or tear the ligamentous system. Moreover, the severity of the damage can range from a slight stretching of the annular ligaments to their full break.

After stretching, you can notice a characteristic curvature of the finger, it becomes difficult, and sometimes it is impossible to straighten the finger. The joint or entire finger swells.

Finger flexion is also very common. Most often, such an injury is observed on the ring finger. This happens, for example, if you have to hold with two or three fingers with an open grip. After damage, a feeling of soreness can be felt throughout the tendon, from the ring finger to the wrist. After damage, grips that can act on injured ligaments should be avoided.

Thumb Sprain

The location of the first metacarpophalangeal joint in some cases causes an increase in the load on it. This joint is located at the base of the thumb. His injury can occur under the influence of a force directed to the straightened thumb: this can happen with an awkward hit on the finger, for example, when playing with the ball.

When stretching the ligaments of the thumb, the victim notes pain when trying to move the thumb, especially when moving the finger to the right or left. Along the perimeter of the joint, swelling is formed in the form of a tumor.

Less often, lateral ligaments of the interphalangeal joint can be observed: such ligaments are located on the sides of the finger phalanges and serve to protect the interphalangeal joint. As a rule, the stretching of these ligaments occurs during a sharp abduction of the finger to the side: such abduction can be caused by a blow or a fall. With such an injury, pain in the thumb and swelling in the area of ​​damage are also observed.

Hand sprain in a child

In childhood, arm sprain is much more common than bone fractures and dislocations of the joints. The cause of injuries is the child’s increased physical activity, his desire for new knowledge, energy and injustice.

With active games, children can fall and hurt, but fractures in childhood are much less common than sprains. This happens because the child’s bones are more flexible than those of an adult, so they tend to withstand a lot of stress. The emphasis in case of injury falls precisely on the ligamentous apparatus, which, compensating for the force of the impact, undergoes stretching.

At the time of the injury, the baby feels a strong and acute pain, which in most cases can gradually subside. For this reason, a child who is injured may still run and play for some time, not paying attention to the damage. However, over the course of several hours (depending on the severity of the injury) a swelling appears in the damaged area, the formation of a hematoma is possible. The child complains of pain during movements with the handle, as well as when feeling it.

Hand movement is limited, the child tries not to use the injured hand in the movements.

In childhood, the elbow joint is most often injured: the ligaments of the elbow joint in children are still not strong enough, they contain many nerve fibers and blood vessels, which explains the appearance of significant soreness and swelling due to distension.

Parents need to understand that treating the baby on their own is not worth it: only a doctor can establish the nature of the child’s injury. Fracture, sprain, rupture, fracture of a bone or dislocation - an accurate diagnosis is established after examining a child by a specialist. The treatment of various types of injuries has its own peculiarities, therefore independent therapeutic measures, whether traditional medicine methods or “what helped the neighbor”, are completely excluded before the diagnosis and consultation of the doctor.

Hand Sprain Treatment

Hand sprain treatment is carried out depending on the severity of the injury. However, it is much more important for us in everyday life in the first place to know how to help a person who has pulled a bunch before contacting a specialist. After all, the time provided for the help depends on how quickly and successfully the further healing of the damage passes.

Let us characterize the most acceptable sequence of actions in such a situation:

  • the victim should be seated or laid down, ensuring peace for the injured limb,
  • it is necessary to give the joint immobility: for this purpose we impose a tight bandage on the damaged area, possibly using a tire,
  • we apply a cold object to the injured area for several hours, it can be a frozen product from the refrigerator, an ice warmer, an ice bottle. All frozen items must be wrapped in a cloth or towel before application,
  • if the swelling of the victim increases, the injured limb should be elevated.

The next step should be a doctor’s call, or delivery of the patient to a trauma center.

What can a doctor do to alleviate the condition of the victim and his speedy recovery?

As a rule, first of all, the doctor anesthetizes the damaged joint or limb. In severe cases, novocaine blockade can be used: 0.25% and 0.5% novocaine + 2 ml of 50% analgin and ampoules of vitamin B¹². The blockade is carried out once or several times with an interval of 3-4 days. Further, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - diclofenac or ibuprofen is possible.

Damage to the ligamentous apparatus requires a relatively long recovery period of at least one month. After stopping the pain syndrome, the doctor prescribes funds for the regeneration of damaged tissues: these are chondroprotective drugs (chondroitin, glucosamine), hyaluronic acid preparations.

A few days after the injury, physiotherapeutic procedures are prescribed: Bernard currents, electrophoresis with Kyod-novocaine, manual therapy, therapeutic baths.

Hand Sprain Massage

With the permission of the doctor, it is often recommended to carry out massage rehabilitation measures. A light massage usually begins on the third day after the injury, in the absence of damage to large vessels and the risk of bleeding, and body temperature does not exceed the norm.

Massage sessions should be daily. During the initial two to three days, absorbable massage is practiced - attention is paid only to areas located above the damaged area. Use stroking, rubbing in a circle, a streaky effect, longitudinal kneading, slight vibration. A good effect is provided by zonal massaging of the cervical sympathetic plexuses. They process the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the supraclavicular border of the trapezius muscle, the external borders of the latissimus dorsi, the deltoid muscle, the sternoclavicular and clavicular acromial joint zones from the injured side.

If, after 1-2 sessions of such massage, there is no increase in pain and deterioration of well-being, they go on to massage the directly injured area. Use light surface stroking, low-amplitude vibration and gentle grinding.

Gradually, along with the process of tissue repair, massage movements become more intense: kneading, tapping, and tissue shifting techniques are included. Tendons, protrusions of bones, joint bags are carefully massaged.

The initial sessions last about 5-10 minutes, then the duration of the massage is increased to 20 minutes. The duration of the therapeutic course is about 2 weeks.

The best effect is achieved when conducting thermal procedures (solux, paraffin baths, electric light baths) immediately before the massage session.

Hand ointment

The therapeutic effect of the ointment when stretching the ligaments of the hand is explained by the composition of the drug, its active substance. According to the principle of action of the ointment can be divided into several categories.

  1. Ointments with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory composition relieve swelling and pain. You can use them no more than 7-10 days. Such ointments include ketoprofen, indomethacin, voltaren, diclofenac.
  2. Steroid ointments contain hormonal substances that can suppress the development of the inflammatory process and prevent swelling. Steroid ointments include hydrocortisone and prednisone ointment.
  3. Absorbable ointments are designed to enhance local blood circulation, which helps the resorption of inflammatory infiltrate and the speedy restoration of damaged tissues. This category includes ointments made from the venom of bees or snakes, with the addition of essential oils, vitamins and camphor, as well as ointments with heparin. It should be noted that such ointments can be used only after the swelling subsides, that is, a few days after the injury. Absorbable ointments: Apizartron, Viprosal, Vipratox.
  4. Cooling ointments, unlike warming ones, are used immediately after damage. Such ointments contain menthol, which soothes pain and cools inflamed tissues. Among such ointments, the most famous are Efkamon, Gevkamen.
  5. Warming distracting ointments are prepared mainly on the basis of capsicum or turpentine. When applied to the skin, such ointments, as a rule, cause a burning sensation and have a warming effect, which helps to activate local blood circulation and accelerate the process of tissue regeneration. As well as absorbable ointments, they are used a few days after receiving the damage, but in no case immediately after the injury. Known warming ointments: Espol, Nikofleks, Finalgon, Mioton, Mellivenon.
  6. Angioprotective ointments are designed to strengthen the walls of blood vessels, which can be broken as a result of trauma. In addition, improving the state of blood vessels will contribute to the relief of swelling and the disappearance of hematomas. Such ointments include troxevasin, venoruton, etc.

All ointments should be applied to the damaged area as accurately as possible, with a thin layer, rubbed with calm movements without excessive pressure on the tissue. After the procedure, it is imperative to wash your hands from the remnants of the product. The course of treatment with one type of ointment should not exceed 10 days.

Folk recipes for sprains

If your doctor does not mind, you can also use alternative methods of treating sprains. Here are some of the most effective ways:

  • rub the raw potatoes, add the grated onion and a little sugar. The resulting mixture is applied in the form of compresses to the injured area,
  • peel and chop the garlic, fill with melted fat and add any number of mint leaves or eucalyptus. After cooling the mixture, filter it and rub it into a sore spot 2-3 times a day,
  • we buy blue clay in the pharmacy, distribute it on the fabric (clay layer - about 3 cm). We put in the form of a compress and wrap it with a warm scarf. They say that three procedures per day are enough,
  • In addition, you should drink tea from a mixture of the color of elderberry, willow bark and birch leaves. Nettle or parsley root can be added to the mixture if desired. This collection relieves pain, eliminates the inflammatory process and prevents the development of infection in damaged tissues.

All of the above compresses and ointments can be used only with the disappearance of puffiness from the injured area.

To stimulate the adrenal glands, it is recommended to drink tea from currant leaves, lingonberries and rose hips: as you know, the hormones of the adrenal cortex have an anti-inflammatory and healing effect. Tea should be drunk 400-500 ml per day half an hour before a meal.


Prevention of sprained hands

Stretching of the ligamentous apparatus of the hand can occur in almost everyone, if you do not follow the safety rules during physical exertion, playing sports or during outdoor games. Physical education should be carried out in appropriate equipment and sports shoes.

If you prefer high-heeled shoes, be careful not to fall. Go around the pit and the roughness of the road surface, try to look under your feet.

If your body weight is far from ideal, it is advisable to lose extra pounds. Change your lifestyle, exercise, review the principles of daily nutrition. Lack of excess weight and moderate physical activity have a firming effect on the ligamentous apparatus.

Before exercise, do some stretching and warming up exercises: this will make the ligaments more elastic and protect you from stretching.

If you are doing strength training with an emphasis on the upper limbs, use special protectors for the wrists. Do not try to immediately take a large weight load after a long break: the muscle system should be loaded gradually, gradually moving from a small weight to a larger one.

Review your diet: vitamin D and calcium must be present on the menu. You can also use special drugs that strengthen the ligamentous apparatus. Such drugs include collagen products, chondroitin and glucosamine.

Arm Sprain Forecast

After the course of treatment after stretching the ligaments of the arm, you will have to limit yourself in sports and lifting weights using the upper limbs for a while. The rehabilitation course can last up to several months, this period is individual in nature, depending on the severity of the injury and the patient's age category.

If you follow all the recommendations of your doctor and adhere to the ligament restoration scheme, the prognosis is usually favorable.

Unfortunately, many tend to attribute sprains to minor injuries that do not require the intervention of a doctor. But here it is important to remember that without certain knowledge one can easily make a mistake with the diagnosis, and then the negative consequences cannot be avoided. Nevertheless, it is better to get the help of a specialist, at least in order to eliminate the dangerous moments of the injury, and also to choose the most appropriate treatment in this case.

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