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How to make ceramic tiles at home


DIY tile perhaps not at all difficult. Paving slabs and even ceramic tile can be made at home using plastic and silicone molds, which can be purchased in garden and construction stores.

Any tile made at home will be inferior in strength to the tile that is manufactured at the factory, because special plants use vibration casting or vibrocompressionHowever, for small areas, tracks, or a specific part of the surface, such a tile is perfect. To calculate the number of tiles, you can use the tile calculator.

Various shapes for tiles.

For the manufacture of tiles at home, a large number of molds for casting tilesthe more forms, the faster production will go. In the production of one tile, the mold cannot be used for at least two days, after which the dried-up tile will need to be removed and the mold filled again with the solution.

Mortar for making tiles.

To prepare the solution you need:

  • Cement (preferably grade M500),
  • River sand
  • Pure water.
  • Dye

Production of paving slabs.

The ratio of cement to sand should be 1/3, water is added so that the consistency of the finished solution was plastic, but not too liquid. An increase in the proportion of water in the solution can lead to a decrease in the strength of the finished concrete.

To increase the strength of the tiles, reinforcing fiber and water-repellent additives can be mixed into the solution.

In order for the tile to find a certain color, in its manufacture, you can use a special coloring pigment for paving slabs.

The solution itself can be kneaded in a concrete mixer, or using a mixer.

Mold filling.

Before pouring the mold, it is necessary to treat it with oil, even mining is suitable for this. The main thing is not to overdo it with oil, otherwise you can spoil the tile.

After lubrication, the mold must be half filled, then the fittings (rod, wire mesh, etc.) must be laid, after that the mold must be completely filled with the mortar, and the mortar itself must be leveled with a wide spatula.

In order for all the air to come out and the cement mass to condense, it is also advisable to lightly tap the mold with the concrete poured on a hard foundation.

Any tapping will not replace the vibrating table, it is used to improve the quality of the tiles. When using it, the tile will turn out more dense, due to this, its wear resistance will increase, as well as the number of cycles of freezing and defrosting of the tile will increase.

Removing tiles from a mold.

After 2 - 3 days after casting, the tile can be removed from the mold. This must be done carefully, turning the form on a soft surface, it is necessary to bend the sides of the form from the tile, after which, gently shaking the form, the tile should separate.

The extracted paving slabs must be put in the shade for final drying, but it is recommended to moisten the tiles during the entire period of curing.

It is possible to use tiles for flooring and walking, not earlier than in 2 - 3 weeks, and a full set of concrete strength from the moment of casting occurs in 28 days.

Making ceramic tiles with your own hands.

Everyone is used to thinking that ceramic tiles are made using sophisticated technological equipment, and therefore it is impossible to repeat the whole process at home, but this is not so.

Stages of creating tile:

  • Kneading clay of the desired consistency,
  • Tiling,
  • Tile drying,
  • Roasting tiles in a special oven,
  • Glaze application
  • Re-firing.

For the manufacture of tiles, you need to choose the most suitable clay. An important criterion is the degree of plasticity of the selected material. There are two types of clay: unplastic and plasticThey are also called skinny and oily. To determine the degree of clay plasticity, it is necessary to roll up a small sausage and stretch, break it. If the material stretches and does not tear for a long time, then you have clay with good ductility indicators.

It is recommended to use medium plastic clay for the production of tiles at home.

After choosing the type of clay, it is necessary to proceed to the formation of its form. To do this, the material is laid out in pre-prepared molds, compacted tightly, after which the edges are aligned.

Drying clay.

The process of drying the clay should last until the tile hardens and becomes much lighter, this will be a sign of evaporation of excess moisture.

The firing temperature of the tiles in the oven will depend on what the finished ceramic tile will be used for. If after preliminary firing the clay plate is covered with glaze, it should be baked at a temperature not exceeding 1000 ° C - this is the so-called biscuit firing. The result of this firing will be a porous structure (hence the name - biscuit firing), which easily absorbs the required amount of glaze.

Secondary firing is performed at a temperature sufficient to bake the glaze itself. When it’s too hot in the oven, instead of a glazed ceramic tile, the output will be a clay plate covered with molten glassy balls.

During firing, the tile shrinks, and it is quite substantial, therefore, if you are going to make ceramic tiles for facing a specific space, you must first determine how much the tile will decrease compared to its initial dimensions in raw form.

How to make ceramic tiles at home: DIY manufacturing technology

Do-it-yourself tile is a completely feasible task for everyone who has at their disposal the equipment necessary for production technology and the desire to create. And, although not everyone succeeds in making high-quality tiles the first time, sometimes the idea is still worth the effort expended on it. So, you can create unique samples of facing material both for personal use and for sale.

Handmade tile

Selection of materials

First you need to understand the manufacturing technology. So how do ceramic tiles do? In fact, all ceramics are made by a similar method. A plastic clay mass is taken as a basis, from which tiles of the desired shape are formed, and then subjected to further processing.

The technology for the production of ceramic tiles is as follows:

  • Raw material preparation. Choosing the right type of clay, mixing the extra charge and keeping the wet mass.
  • Making Raw. This is called raw clay billet. To go to the next stage, raw needs to be dried thoroughly.
  • Sponge firing. This is the primary heat treatment. At high temperatures, the particles of minerals melt together, forming a durable ceramic product called terracotta.
  • Dressing. Here, either varnish or enamel is applied to the primed surface, or glazes with further firing to obtain a glossy majolica.

To make a good tile with your own hands, each step of the process should be considered in more detail.

Making any ceramic tiles with your own hands at home begins with the selection of raw materials. Of course, clay acts as the main component. It should be borne in mind that there are many varieties of this material:

When choosing clay for tiles, it is also necessary to take into account the degree of its plasticity. The most plastic is oily clay, which can be given absolutely any shape. Skinny is called non-ductile brittle clay, which breaks with a certain effect on it. It’s best to choose the middle type.

You can take fatty material and dilute it with sand, fireclay or pumice. This will also make the clay less refractory and prevent it from breaking during firing.

Clay - the main component of the tile

Clay rocks such as :

  • Kaolin. Differs in white color, it is used for production of faience and porcelain. Also used in paper production and in cosmetology.
  • Cement. Cement mixes are made from it.
  • Brick. It is distinguished by fusibility, brick products are made from it.
  • Fireproof. Refractory grade, withstanding temperatures up to 1580 degrees.
  • Acidproof. Do not interact with most chemical compounds. It is a raw material for the production of chemically resistant glassware and molds for the chemical industry.
  • Molding. Plastic refractory grade, used in the metallurgical industry.
  • Bentonite. A characteristic difference is the whitening properties.

The facing tile must be strong, therefore, reinforcing mesh is sometimes used for additional reinforcement. To give a shade of terracotta, natural pigments are used, which are mineral oxides. Some types of clay already contain them in their composition, as evidenced by the characteristic shade of raw materials.

Making Raw

Considering the production of ceramic tiles at home, the first step is the preparation of raw materials. After you have decided on the composition and mixed all the components in the required proportions, it is necessary to wind the mass into a plastic bag and block the air supply. In this form, the clay should be infused enough so that each particle of the porous material absorbs moisture. The presence of air chambers will worsen the strength characteristics of the finished product.

Further manufacturing involves the molding of tiles. For convenience, it is better to use polyurethane forms. With their help, you can create smooth products with the same external parameters. It is important to carefully compact the clay and distribute it in shape to achieve the same thickness over the entire area of ​​the sample.

The first step in the manufacture of tiles is the preparation and molding of raw

Further, the tile blank, the so-called raw, is left to dry. The completion of this stage is indicated by the lightening of the tile and its hardening. In this case, you need to be careful, because the raw is very fragile. But in case of failure, the molding and drying process can be repeated by soaking the tile blank in water.

Primary firing

The next step in how to make a real tile with your own hands is roasting raw. At this stage, the mineral materials that are used for ceramics are exposed to high temperature and fused to a glass-like mass. At the same time, the strength of the tile becomes several times higher.

To give strength to the product, kiln firing

According to traditional technology, the baking temperature of clay for tiles of different types should be 1000-1300 degrees Celsius. Since at home it is rarely enough possible to achieve such values, you can reduce the temperature down to 850-900 degrees.

So that the quality of the product does not suffer from this, pumice should be added to the raw material mass in advance. It is at its expense that a decrease in baking temperature is possible. However, keep in mind that a large amount (more than 40%) will affect the plasticity of clay and reduce its strength.

In biscuit firing, raw shrinks due to evaporation of moisture from the mass. This must be taken into account when calculating the total dimensions of the product. Also take into account the fact that at this stage the tile structure becomes more porous. In the presence of auxiliary pressure, fewer pores can be made, but this is only possible under production conditions.

Product decoration

The fact that the tile, made by yourself, has a porous structure has its advantages. This is useful for further decorative processing. It is the pores that absorb part of the outer coating and prevent it from spreading.

In order for the facing tile to become glossy, you can make a special glaze with your own hands. It may include the following components:

The resulting dusty powder is mixed with pure water. Other minerals are added to the mass, the general list of which includes about 30 items. You can apply glaze on the tile with a spray or with a brush. The pouring method is also used.

For hardening and joining with terracotta, the product is subjected to secondary firing. It is important to prevent the temperature of the lower layer from rising above the critical level, otherwise the tile may melt. Using glazes of different composition, you can make unique compositions on majolica. If the creation of a glass-like coating does not suit you, you can achieve a glossy shine using enamel or varnish.

Now you know how to make ceramic tiles yourself at home. Before starting volume production, experiment with shrinkage, composition, and design of sample products.

How to make ceramic tiles

To make such a facing material like ceramic tile with your own hands is quite possible. The manufacture of ceramics at home can be organized using plastic and silicone molds. They are sold in a fairly wide range in garden and construction stores.

It is impossible to imagine modern housing without tiled cladding. And ceramics, made and painted with their own hands, will become a real decoration in the kitchens and in the bathrooms, and even as an element of decor in the rooms. For those who are not afraid to make the necessary amount of ceramics on their own, the technique of making such a coating at home comes to the rescue.

Decorative tiles can be made under the stone. Any kind of natural stone is subject to imitation. Such material will most closely resemble a natural analogue. How to make a tile imitating stone yourself? In the simplest version, gypsum powder is used for this with the addition of fillers and dyes, which form a unique pattern for each finished product. But it will not be ceramics.

What is this article about

Why do ceramics do it yourself

Tile in the form of artificial decorative stone can be ceramic. Homemade tiles have advantages over finishing with natural materials. The main plus of decorative ceramics made under a stone is its cost, which is significantly lower than the cost of natural analogues. The components used in the manufacture make the tile easier than natural material. For decorative finishes, ceramic made under a brick is excellent.

In the question of how to make tiles for your needs, there are no restrictions for imagination. It can be designed as you like. For example, the kitchen can be decorated with ceramic trimmings with the image of still lifes. In the bathroom you can "settle" the marine inhabitants, and in the nursery there will be bizarre patterns or fabulous motifs in place. Stone tiles will look great in the living room, hallway, around the doorways. This finishing material will perfectly complement the design wherever its use is appropriate.

Such a versatile, self-made decoration material will not only enrich and diversify the interior, but will also provide significant cost savings. Despite the fact that the self-made tile is less durable than factory products, with proper care, it is able to last for more than a dozen years, pleasing with an original, absolutely unique design. These bases are enough to, if you wish, independently engage in the manufacture of ceramics for covering small sections of walls, walkways, openings, etc.

What is the difference between hand-made and factory-made

Many people are accustomed to the idea that the manufacture of tiles is possible only with the use of sophisticated technological equipment, which means that in the domestic environment it is unrealistic to make your own tile. But this is not true. Of course, in the manufacture of ceramics independently, the technology differs from the factory one.

The steps for making tile yourself include:

  1. Kneading clay.
  2. Shaping.
  3. Drying out.
  4. Firing in a special oven.
  5. Glaze application.
  6. Re-firing.

How to make ceramic tiles in the right amount? In everyday conditions, a sufficient number of forms will be required. The more molds are acquired, the faster the process of manufacturing the coating material will go. It is important to consider that the production of one tile will take about 2 days. Dry tiles can only be removed from the mold after this period. Thus, the cycle of use of the form ensures the receipt of one product every 2 days.

How to choose clay

Do-it-yourself tile can not be made from any clay. It’s important to take into account the plasticity of the selected raw materials, because to make high-quality tiles without this will not work. Clay can be maloplastic and plastic. It can also be called skinny and oily. To determine how clay is plastic, just take a small piece, roll a sausage from it and stretch it. Если она будет хорошо тянуться, это значит, что сырье обладает достаточной пластичностью.

Для изготовления кафеля своими руками рекомендуется выбирать глину со средним показателем пластичности или не очень «жирное» сырье. The best option would be medium plastic clay, from which you get a fairly strong tile. In the process of firing, such a tile will not “tear”. Clay should be wet. Before use, it must be allowed to lie down in a bag, eliminating the evaporation of water. In the structure of non-caking clay, there are pores with air, which reduces its ductility and worsens the binding properties.

How to mold a tile

Step-by-step instructions for self-made tiles are not difficult. The manufacture of ceramic tiles begins with molding:

  1. Clay is laid in molds and densely compacted. This must be done so that the edges of the mold and product coincide.
  2. Excess clay must be removed, otherwise the decorative tile after drying will have very sharp edges. When trying to repel them, a tile may break.
  3. Drying the clay should take as long as it takes to fully harden it. You can determine this by changing the color of the material: sufficiently dried clay will become significantly lighter, which will be a sign of evaporation of excess moisture from the tile. As soon as this happened, a semi-finished product called raw was obtained.

Despite the fact that the raw material is quite durable, when tapped, it can crumble. At this stage, you can still change something. It is enough to throw raw into a container with wet clay so that it draws water, softens and becomes usable again.

The next step is firing, which changes all the physical properties of clay and no alterations will be possible.

How is firing

If it is planned to manufacture floor tiles at home without glaze, then it will be enough to perform only one firing. If after the first firing it is supposed to cover the plates with glaze, then a second firing step will be required.

The facing tile is fired at a temperature not exceeding 1000 ° C. The first firing is called biscuit. Its result will be to obtain the porous structure of the material, which will ensure the absorption of the desired amount of glaze in the second stage. This is how they mostly do tile on the floor with their own hands.

The second firing is performed at a similar temperature, which will provide a sufficient degree of glaze baking. When creating floor tiles with your own hands, it is better not to make glaze, since it is very slippery, which is unsafe, especially in the bathroom. The tiles on the wall are most often made with a glassy coating.

During the firing process, the tile shrinks. It can be substantial. That is why tiles at home must be made with a quantitative margin, so that there is enough finished material for facing a certain surface. The number of spare parts can be determined by eye, because it will be difficult to make an accurate calculation. In addition, it is necessary to provide for the possible slaughter and cracking of products during the lining process.

What to use for firing

Some skeptics argue that in everyday conditions it is impossible to reach a temperature close to 1000 ° C. But for the manufacture of ceramics, 900 ° C may well be enough. And such a value can provide a muffle furnace.

For biscuit firing, the temperature should have a value of 850 ° C. It is then that the remaining moisture evaporates from the tile and it becomes finely porous, like a biscuit.

At this stage, you can stop if the tile will be designed for laying on the floor. After such firing, the tile becomes sufficiently solid and strong. When creating a tile on a wall with your own hands, when you want to get a cladding in the form of a tile with a smooth surface that imitates a natural stone or any pattern, additional processing will be required. The pasting one stage of firing ceramics without glaze is called terracotta. If it is necessary to obtain majolica, then a second firing of ceramics is required to form a coating of glaze.

How to color a tile

Making a tile is not everything. Outwardly, it must correspond to the intended design. To do this, you will need to master some additional decorating techniques to make your own drawing unique.

How to make ceramic with a pattern?

One way is painting on ceramics. This is a fairly simple method that allows you to give the tile an original appearance. To decorate the tiles, you can also use the decoupage technique.

Do-it-yourself tiles are rarely made without a pattern. You can paint your own made tiles using the decoupage technique. If you choose the right materials, you get a fairly strong coating that will be able to withstand damage. This tile will last a long time.

A phased action plan consists of several steps. First of all, you need to choose a suitable napkin motif. What to choose from? For example, for the kitchen it can be a fruit basket, wine or floral motifs, landscape, etc. The appearance of tiles made by yourself for coloring will be better if the motif covers the entire surface.

If the napkins are multi-layered, then decoupage will require only the top layer with a pattern. When wet, the napkins stretch, so it will be necessary to process them with a specific method. The napkin should be laid out patterned on a flat surface. After that, it must be covered with hairspray, covered with parchment and ironed with a warm iron. This procedure will allow the napkin to maintain shape.

How to apply drawing

At the next stage, the prepared tile is degreased with alcohol or detergent. Then the processed motif is placed on the clerical file face down and brought up to a thin stream of water for wetting. After that, the excess water is drained, and the napkin is straightened. Next, the file is placed on the tile. A soft rag is taken and the surface is smoothed with a slight pressure. The file is carefully removed, the napkin should remain on the surface of the tile.

If bubbles and folds have formed, they should be removed with a fan brush, moving from the center to the edges. It is important not to press too hard so as not to tear the paper. After a few minutes, the napkin should be fixed with PVA glue. To apply glue, again, use a fan brush. Finished work should be allowed to dry until completely dry.

Next, an aerosol spray with car lacquer is taken and the surface of the tile is covered with a thin layer of the product, which then must completely dry. If the napkin accidentally breaks during operation, you can paint on the corresponding area with acrylic paints. The same can be done if the motive of insufficient size was used. In this case, you can shade the transition from the picture to the rest of the surface or paint a shadow in gray tones. After painting, the surface is also covered with a layer of varnish.

Colorful lining for the kitchen or bathroom is ready.