Syndrome of night apnea is a dangerous disease, the first witnesses of which, as a rule, are close people. It is they who, during wakefulness, can notice a sudden stop in breathing and snoring, which often accompanies sleep apnea. After a few seconds, the patient usually snores loudly and begins to breathe again.
In severe cases, up to 400 respiratory arrests may occur during the night. Their total duration is frightening - up to 3-4 hours.
Episodes of apnea are accompanied by a drop in blood oxygen saturation. This process is called desaturation. With severe degrees of illness, this leads to hypoxia - a lack of oxygen in the blood and organs.
Episodes of apnea provoke micro-awakening. This causes fragmentation of sleep, a violation of its structure. In this case, the deep phases disappear, the first (superficial) stage of sleep becomes longer. Because of this, during periods of wakefulness, patients feel tired and sleepy.
Apnea syndrome is a fairly common pathology, which is often underestimated by patients and doctors. According to statistics, 24% of adult men and 9% of women suffer from this ailment with a frequency of episodes of respiratory arrest up to five per hour.
Currently, scientists have conducted many studies that confirm the relationship between apnea syndrome and overall mortality from cardiovascular disease, arterial hypertension, cerebral strokes, coronary heart disease. Various arrhythmias, heart block, atrial fibrillation are also associated with apnea.
Sleep apnea is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Patients with it often suffer from depression, decreased performance and sexual function, the risk of getting into traffic accidents due to falling asleep while driving increases several times.
Symptoms of Nocturnal Apnea
Apnea is characterized by several main symptoms: snoring in a dream, intermittent respiratory arrest and snoring for 10 seconds or more, the occurrence of a noisy sigh and snoring after each episode of respiratory arrest, which indicate that breathing has recovered.
Snoring is a critical symptom of nocturnal apnea. As a rule, the main reason why a patient visits a doctor is loud snoring in a dream, which interferes with others. Among these patients, more than half suffer from sleep apnea syndrome. It is worth noting that if you do not treat pronounced snoring for a long time, then even uncomplicated initially, sooner or later, it will lead to the development of apnea.
In a state of nocturnal apnea, the patient significantly reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood. Therefore, his face, lips, limbs can acquire a bluish tint. If you observe a sleeping person who is suffering from this disease, you will notice that at the moment of stopping his breathing his chest and stomach continue to move, as if he continues to breathe. Thus, the body makes attempts to inhale.
Each respiratory arrest is a great stress for the body, which is accompanied by a short-term increase in blood pressure up to 250 millimeters of mercury. Regular episodes of nocturnal apnea and a concomitant increase in pressure lead to chronic hypertension, which often has a crisis course. This can explain the increased likelihood of developing strokes in this group of patients. Moreover, in such cases, blood pressure is difficult to treat with standard antihypertensive drugs.
Hypoxia and the absence of a deep phase of sleep provoke a decrease in the production of growth hormone, which is responsible for a healthy fat metabolism in the human body. It is known that the food entering the digestive tract is partially processed into energy, and part is stored in the form of fat reserves. During periods of lack of food, fat is used as an energy resource and is consumed by the body. Growth hormone helps turn fat into energy.
If there is a violation of the secretion of this hormone, then lipids cannot turn into energy, despite its lack. Thus, the patient constantly consumes food in order to replenish his energy expenditure. Excesses are deposited in the form of fat, which remains unclaimed. This explains the frequent fullness among patients suffering from apnea. However, often all efforts aimed at losing weight are ineffectual.
It is also worth noting that fat deposits in the neck provoke a further narrowing of the airways and the progression of the disease. This leads to a further decrease in the amount of growth hormone. This creates a "vicious circle", which can only be broken with the help of special treatment.
A chronically sleepy person experiences a lot of health problems. He is concerned about headaches, drowsiness, irritability, memory impairment, attention and potency. People suffering from serious sleep and breathing problems can even suddenly fall asleep in inappropriate places during the day - driving a car while talking. They awaken after a few seconds. Moreover, they themselves may not notice such short-term “disconnects”.
Despite the fact that a number of clinical symptoms of sleep disorders with apnea have been described, it is often extremely difficult to make an accurate diagnosis based on external signs. Therefore, in order to get the correct verdict and the appointment of appropriate treatment, the patient must undergo a complete diagnosis in a specialized somnological center.
Obstructive Apnea Syndrome
This is the most common form of apnea in adults. It is usually found in patients older than 30 years.
In this case, respiratory arrest occurs due to increased resistance to air flow at the level of the pharynx. This process provokes various respiratory disorders of varying severity.
The mechanism of airway collapse in obstructive sleep apnea is associated with muscle relaxation in the pharynx. This causes a decrease in the airway clearance.
Due to the numerous episodes of respiratory arrest and the resulting hypoxia, signals are sent to the brain that are considered alarming. They provoke activation of the nervous system and short-term awakenings.
Such episodes are often repeated during the night, so the structure of sleep is completely disturbed. He does not give rest and does not give vigor. Also, oxygen starvation causes great damage to the body.
Obstructive apnea syndrome can manifest itself as partial (hypopnea) and complete (apnea) collapse of the upper respiratory tract.
Central apnea syndrome
Central sleep apnea is a violation of the respiratory process, in which there are episodes of a complete stop or decrease in the efforts of the respiratory muscles during sleep. Breathing then appears and stops. These disorders are associated with various brain problems or in the functioning of the heart.
Unlike obstructive apnea syndrome, the cause of respiratory failure in central apnea is not blocking the upper airways.
In the optimal state, the heart and brain clearly interact with each other and set the correct respiratory rhythm. Together, these bodies control the amount of air consumed. The problem in patients with central apnea is that impaired coordination of the heart and brain causes the lungs to lose oxygen.
Central apnea syndrome is divided into several categories:
- Primary form of central apnea. The breathing pattern in this case looks like this: repeated episodes of the cessation of the effort of the respiratory muscles and air flow. The causes are unknown. This form is quite rare and, as a rule, in the elderly. The genetic tendency, various neurological disorders (Parkinson's disease, multisystem atrophy) increase the risk of this disorder.
Chain-Stokes breathing. The pattern of breathing is a series of episodes of decrease and increase in respiratory effort and air flow. The reasons may be hiding in heart failure, stroke. Most often, the disease affects men aged 60 years. About 20-40% of the stronger sex with chronic heart failure suffer from this disease. In women, such violations are much less common.
Central apnea in various diseases of the nervous system and other organs. This type of central sleep apnea is associated with various diseases, but the pattern of respiration does not correspond to the Cheyne-Stokes type. The reasons, as a rule, lie in the ailments of the kidneys and heart, and are also associated with pathologies of the brain stem structure, which controls breathing. This is a fairly rare violation.
High altitude breathing. Usually, such a pathology occurs in people during a sleep period high above sea level (over 4500 meters). The breathing pattern is similar to the Chain-Stokes type. The difference is that patients have no signs of renal or heart failure, did not tolerate a stroke. It is also worth noting the shorter duration of the respiratory cycle. More often this deviation occurs in men, as they are more sensitive to fluctuations in oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. At an altitude of over 7500 meters above sea level, this pathology occurs in almost all people.
Causes of Apnea Syndrome in Newborns
Apnea is a common ailment that accompanies premature newborns. The frequency and severity of the pathology are significantly reduced if the gestational period exceeds 36 weeks. According to statistics, if the gestational period is less than 30 weeks, apnea is observed in most newborns. With gestational age from 30 to 32 weeks, this indicator decreases to 50%. In babies whose gestational age is more than 34 weeks, the number of pathologies is 7%.
In addition to prematurity, such factors are associated with apnea in newborns:
- Thermoregulation Disorder. This can be both hyperthermia and hypothermia.
Various infections. This category includes pneumonia, septicemia, meningitis, necrotic enterocolitis.
Respiratory Disorders. They can be caused by hemolytic disease of the newborn, pulmonary hemorrhage, pneumonia, obstruction of the upper airways, gastroesophageal reflux.
Metabolic disorders. This category of pathologies includes hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, hypernatremia, hyponatremia, hyperammonemia, aminoaciduria.
Neurological Disorders. Apnea can cause seizures, asphyxia, intracranial hemorrhage, meningitis, brain malformations, inhibition of the respiratory center by drugs, as well as the consequences of taking a drug by a pregnant woman.
To identify the cause of apnea in a full-term newborn is usually not difficult. But in children born prematurely, attacks of recurring apnea can appear from the first or second day of life without any particularly obvious reasons. These episodes are recorded during REM sleep, when central regulation of respiration is inhibited. In such cases, the tone of the intercostal muscles decreases, the movements of the chest become asynchronous, the volume of the lungs becomes smaller, hypoxemia develops.
The main factor responsible for the development of apnea in premature infants is considered to be the immaturity of respiratory brain stem neurons.
It is worth noting that apnea in newborns is considered the main cause of the so-called sudden death syndrome, which is the third in the list of factors of child mortality.
Criteria for central apnea syndrome in children
In children older than a year, apnea is much less common than in newborns. As a rule, this syndrome is obstructive.
It can cause tonsil hypertrophy, swelling of the nasopharynx of an allergic or inflammatory nature, a violation of the anatomical structure of the nasal septum, narrowing of the larynx, hypotension, obesity, hereditary pathologies.
Syndrome of central apnea also occurs, but much less frequently. Usually, he is a companion to premature babies, as well as toddlers who suffer from cerebral palsy and Down syndrome. Disorders of the brain can also be associated with intrauterine infection of the fetus, birth injury.
Central apnea often manifests itself in combination with obstructive respiratory disorders in sleep. The reasons for the development of such pathologies are: drugs prescribed for the child or nursing mother, anemia, aspiration or gastroesophageal reflux, hypoglycemia, hypoventilation of central alveoli, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, spinal and intracranial injuries, sepsis, electrolyte disorders, hyperbilirubinemia.
Causes of Apnea Syndrome in Adults
The actual cause of obstructive sleep apnea in adults is pharyngeal muscle weakness. They are responsible for supporting the tongue, tonsils, soft palate. With strong relaxation, the structures they support subside, and a partial or complete blockage of the throat occurs. This stops the flow of air into the lungs.
There are a number of factors that exacerbate the course of this ailment:
- Excess weight. This is one of the most common risk factors. Adipose tissue, which is deposited in the neck, increases the load on the muscles of the throat. In addition, excess fat in the abdomen increases the load on the diaphragm during breathing. An increase in the load on these muscles makes the course of this ailment more severe.
Age. Human muscles tend to weaken during aging. Therefore, apnea most often manifests itself at the age of 40 years.
Sedative use. Drugs with hypnotic effect affect the degree of muscle relaxation.
Structural features. Apnea can cause such abnormalities in the physiological structure: thin airways, large tonsils, large tongue, small lower jaw, the presence of a large number of folds on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity.
Frequent drinking. This can aggravate the course of the disease.
Smoking. In heavy smokers, apnea occurs 3 times more often than in non-smokers.
Menopause. During this period, hormonal changes occur in women, which contribute to excessive relaxation of the muscles of the throat.
Hereditary Addiction. The chance of developing this disease increases if relatives suffered from sleep apnea.
Diabetes. The risk of night apnea in people with this diagnosis is 2-3 times higher than in the rest.
How to treat obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with CPAP therapy
CPAP or from the English abbreviation CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) is a method of therapy that is prescribed for moderate and severe stages of apnea.
Treatment consists in the use of a special breathing apparatus that helps the patient breathe while sleeping. At night, the patient wears a mask covering his mouth or nose with mouth. The device creates a constant air flow under pressure. Air enters the respiratory system, preventing soft tissue from collapsing, which causes hypopnea and apnea.
Currently, CPAP devices operate silently, have humidifiers and many settings that allow you to adapt the device to any patient.
Today, CPAP therapy is considered one of the most effective in the treatment of apnea syndrome. As a result of using the equipment, the risk of strokes is reduced by 40%, heart attacks - by 20%.
Wearing a mask can have certain disadvantages: discomfort during sleep, nasal congestion and rhinitis, difficulty in nasal breathing, earache, headache, flatulence. If these symptoms appear, consult your doctor.
Surgery for Apnea Syndrome
As a rule, surgical treatment is prescribed in extreme cases, when CPAP-therapy was ineffective, and the disease progresses or significantly worsens the quality of life of the patient. Most often, surgery is prescribed for curvature of the nasal septum, hypertrophied tonsils, small lower jaw.
Хирургическое вмешательство может включать такие виды операций: трахеостомия, увулопалатофарингопластика, тонзиллэктомия, аденоидэктомия, бариатрическая хирургия, система Пиллар.
Лечение синдрома апноэ с помощью нижнечелюстной шины
The mandibular splint is a special device that is similar to a sports tray. It fixes the lower jaw and tongue in a special position so that they do not interfere with free breathing during sleep.
The tire is made from a material that resembles rubber, is worn on the teeth and fixes the lower jaw.
Such a device is used to treat moderate apnea syndrome. Typically, tires are ordered to individual sizes from dentists who specialize in this.
Changing lifestyle and habits for treating apnea syndrome
Attacks of apnea syndrome can be greatly alleviated if the patient makes several key changes in his own lifestyle:
- Complete refusal or reduction in the amount of alcohol consumed. Also, do not drink alcohol 4-6 hours before bedtime.
To give up smoking.
Refusal of tranquilizing and sleeping pills.
Conducting relaxing treatments before bedtime: meditation, massage.
Refusal to read and watch TV in bed.
It is important to try to sleep in a lateral position, not on your stomach or back. So you will remove the load from the muscles of the pharynx and diaphragm.
How to treat sleep apnea syndrome - see the video:
Symptoms of the disease
Sleep apnea, the symptoms of which everyone needs to know, threatens respiratory arrest. However, a person may not feel what is happening during sleep and not be aware of his illness. It is worth paying attention to other obvious signs characterizing sleep apnea. It:
- Regular snoring.
- The feeling of suffocation that occurs during sleep.
- Overwork and drowsiness throughout the day.
- Morning headache.
- Reduced concentration and irritability.
- Dry feeling in throat and mouth after waking up.
Types of Apnea: Central Lack of Breath
A phenomenon such as a central lack of breathing is quite rare in medical practice. This type of apnea is characterized by the fact that at some point the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the respiratory muscles that control breathing. Because of this, breathing stops. Moreover, patients sleep so restlessly that they are able to recall their nocturnal awakenings. Central sleep apnea can lead to complications such as hypoxia or disorders of the cardiovascular system.
Types of Apnea: Obstructive Lack of Breath
More often, doctors face obstructive lack of breathing. In this case, the lumen of the respiratory tract is critically narrowed, the muscles of the pharynx relax, the air flow is interrupted. Oxygen levels drop, and a person is forced to wake up to restore breathing. However, these awakenings are so short-lived that in the morning they are not remembered. On average, in a person suffering from this type of apnea, such respiratory arrest attacks occur 5-30 times per hour. Naturally, we are not talking about any full sleep or rest. Obstructive sleep apnea, the treatment of which must be started when the first symptoms of the disease are detected, can lead to a number of disorders with health and well-being.
Types of Apnea: Complex Respiration
This type of apnea has all the characteristic signs of both central and obstructive respiratory rhythm disturbances. Periodic respiratory arrest in combination with obstruction of the upper respiratory tract accompany a person throughout sleep. Such a sleep apnea syndrome requires immediate diagnosis and treatment, as it threatens with quite serious consequences, such as the development of coronary heart disease.
Apnea in children
Despite the fact that we are accustomed to consider this problem rather age-related, it can also occur in children. Children with enlarged tonsils and adenoids, lowering the palate and chin, and an underdeveloped nervous system are at risk. Premature babies, newborns with Down syndrome and cerebral palsy are also more likely to suffer from nocturnal apnea. The reason may be medications taken by a nursing mother. Parents should be alert for loud breathing during sleep, wheezing or nocturnal coughing, prolonged intervals between breaths. The child does not fully get enough sleep, sweats and looks restless during wakefulness.
The most dangerous form of the disease is the obstructive form. The baby's face turns pale, fingers and lips become cyanotic, the heartbeat slows down, and muscle tone decreases. Sleep apnea in children requires immediate medical attention, as it is believed that the disease can lead to sudden infant death syndrome.
Causes of Apnea
Difficult or impaired patency of the upper respiratory tract leads to a condition called apnea by doctors. Most often, people with overweight or any inflammation of the airways suffer from the disease. The causes of sleep apnea can be different:
- Obesity, especially when significant deposits of fat are located on the neck.
- Neurological disorders that cause the brain to “forget” how to breathe in a dream.
- Curvature of the nasal septum, as well as other anomalies in the structure of the respiratory tract.
- Bad habits such as smoking, alcohol abuse or taking drugs.
- Uncomfortable sleeping position.
- Age-related changes associated with a deterioration in muscle tone.
The danger of apnea
Hypoxia is the main danger facing sleep apnea. Lowering the oxygen level to the minimum level leads to the fact that the person is quiet, the skin turns blue, and the brain receives a signal that it is necessary to wake up. Upon awakening, a person inhales oxygen, thereby restoring impaired breathing. This state of affairs cannot be called normal. A person does not chronically get enough sleep, not being able to plunge into the much-needed deep sleep. This leads to constant stress, disturbances in the functioning of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. In this regard, the level of injuries at work and at home is increasing.
Often in patients with night apnea syndrome, the level of morning pressure rises, the heart rate is disturbed, which leads to the development of ischemia, stroke, atherosclerosis. Against the background of apnea, the condition of patients suffering from chronic diseases, for example, lung pathologies, worsens. As a significant side effect, one can also note the suffering of loved ones, forced not to get enough sleep next to a regularly snoring person.
Diagnosis of Apnea
To determine the severity of the problem, the most important role is played by the patient’s relatives, who, according to V.I. Upon examination, the doctor determines the patient’s body mass index. It is dangerous if the UTI is above 35. In this case, a second degree obesity is diagnosed. The volume of the neck should normally not exceed 40 cm in women and 43 cm in men. A pressure reading above 140/90 may also indicate a problem.
When diagnosing a consultation with an otolaryngologist is mandatory. At this stage, health problems such as curvature of the nasal septum, polyps, chronic tonsillitis, sinusitis and rhinitis are identified. Polysomnographic research allows you to register all the electrical potentials, the level of respiratory activity, the number, as well as the duration of attacks during sleep. In some cases, choking in a dream is not apnea. Screaming breathing with certain abnormalities may indicate incipient asthma or other health problems.
In order to determine the severity of sleep apnea, it is necessary to calculate the average number of respiratory arrest attacks per hour. Up to five episodes - no problem, up to 15 - mild syndrome, up to 30 - moderate. Over 30 attacks are considered a serious form of the disease, requiring immediate medical attention. The method of treatment is determined by the doctor based on the patient’s state of health, and traditional medicine is helping to get rid of the problem faster.
Apnea treatment always consists in eliminating the cause that caused the problem. Adenoids and tonsils are removed surgically, the curved nasal septum is also normalized, allowing the person to breathe fully. Obese people are prescribed treatment to normalize their weight. Weight reduction of only 5 kilograms in many cases helps to get rid of the problem. For diseases of a neurological nature, medication is required. Respiratory stimulants, such as Theophylline or Acetazolamide, are also prescribed.
If the cause of sleep apnea is a flabby sky, then the radio wave method helps to strengthen it, as well as change the configuration. Local anesthesia, the absence of a long rehabilitation period and high efficiency made the method the most popular today. The operation lasts only 20 minutes, after an hour the patient goes home, and spends the next night without the usual agonizing apnea. Treatments such as liquid nitrogen or laser are also popular and effective. But the healing of the palate after manipulation is slower, causing a person some discomfort.
In severe cases, CPAP therapy is used. A special device, which is a mask connected to a pressure-generating device, is worn on the patient’s nose before going to bed. Pressure is selected in such a way that it is easy and comfortable for a person to breathe. Less popular are methods of treating apnea, such as fixatives for the jaws and glue strips that increase the lumens of the nasal passages, pillows that force a person to sleep exclusively in the “on the side” position.
Alternative methods of treatment
Alternative medicine offers many options for getting rid of apnea. Simple and affordable recipes can sleep a great help to the traditional treatment of the disease.
- To moisturize the mucous membranes of the throat and nose before going to bed, rinse your nose with salt water, which is poured into the palm of your hand, draw it in with your nose and immediately blow your nose. To prepare the mixture, it is necessary to dissolve a teaspoon of sea salt in a glass of warm water.
- Cabbage juice has also long been used in the treatment of apnea. A teaspoon of honey is added to a glass of freshly squeezed juice. The drink should be consumed within a month before bedtime.
- Healing nasal breathing will help healing sea buckthorn oil. It is enough to instill 5 drops of oil in each nostril for several weeks before going to bed. This method helps to remove inflammation from the tissues of the nasopharynx, has a healing effect, restores blood circulation.
- Carrots have proven effective in treating snoring. It is necessary to eat one baked root three times a day before meals.
- Yoga can also be used as a treatment for apnea. Simple exercises performed 30 times in the morning and before bedtime will help to forget about the attacks of the disease. Pull the tongue forward while lowering to the chin. In this position, hold your tongue for two seconds. Press the chin with your hand and move the jaw back and forth with a certain amount of force.
- The easiest and most pleasant way to treat mild or moderate apnea is singing. Just sing daily for half an hour, strengthening your throat muscles. This method is really effective.
Such treatment of sleep apnea with folk remedies will help to cope with the problem, provided that all the recommendations of the doctor and subsequent preventive measures are followed.
Overweight people need to review their diet and lose weight. Smoking and alcohol are also some of the main causes leading to apnea. Refusing these bad habits in many cases helps to get rid of the problem forever. Toning drinks, including a cup of your favorite coffee in the afternoon, can also lead to the development of sleep apnea. It is enough to limit the intake of such drinks to a reasonable minimum.
A hard mattress and low pillow make breathing easier during sleep. Accustom yourself to sleep on your stomach. This will help relieve sleep apnea. Hiking before bedtime, soothing baths, massage - a good prevention of problems that interfere with fully get enough sleep and lead to many health problems.
Apnea syndrome is a short-term (up to three minutes) respiratory arrest in a dream. Holding the breath can be either single or small, or in large numbers - hundreds of breath holdings per night. The main danger of apnea is that in the worst possible state of affairs in a dream, you can die. Why does respiratory arrest occur during sleep and how to protect yourself from apnea syndrome?
What is apnea
When it comes to respiratory arrest during sleep, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is implied, which can be of two types:
- Apnea - during sleep, the throat muscles relax so much that they block the airways. In this case, breathing may be interrupted for 10 seconds or more.
- Hypopnea - when the airways are partially blocked, and only 50% of oxygen or less enters the lungs. Breathing also stops for 10 seconds or longer.
In addition to OSAS, there is another type of respiratory arrest in a dream - central sleep apnea syndrome. The difference between these two types of apnea lies in the fact that during OSAS, respiratory arrest occurs due to the tissues of the pharynx blocking oxygen, and during central night apnea, respiratory arrest occurs due to improper brain function. The brain does not control the respiratory process and, as it were, “forgets” to send a signal to the respiratory tract to open. Because of this, respiratory arrest occurs, which can lead to death.
Due to frequent episodes of apnea, a person may experience problems with the quality and duration of sleep. The fact is that when breathing stops due to insufficient oxygen in the lungs, the body can move from the deep sleep stage to the superficial stage, or even cause awakening. A person can wake up and sit on the bed to catch his breath. Often people don’t even remember this, but in the morning they can feel tired and feel sleepy.
Causes of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome
Factors contributing to respiratory arrest in sleep with OSAS:
- Violations of the structure of the jaw. If the jaw is not large enough, during sleep, the person’s tongue sinks backward, blocking the airways.
- Too big language.
- Small or short neck.
- Excess weight or obesity - in this case, a fatty “clutch” surrounds the pharynx, squeezing it.
- Enlarged tonsils or adenoids - create a mechanical barrier to air intake.
- Drinking alcohol or sleeping pills - they relax the muscles of the pharynx to such a state that they practically stick together, preventing a person from breathing in a dream.
- Recent operations on the upper respiratory tract.
- Chronic diseases of the upper respiratory tract - sinusitis or vasomotor rhinitis.
When breathing stops caused by OSAS, a person feels a sharp oxygen starvation, since oxygen retention lasts for a rather long time. To finally get the necessary oxygen, the brain awakens sharply and sends a signal to the lungs, which forces a person to take a sharp, noisy breath. After this, a person can snore quite loudly until the muscles relax again and the next episode of apnea occurs.
Causes of central sleep apnea syndrome
SCAS can be caused by a number of reasons related to the work of the brain:
- Opioid drug use - heroin, morphine, methadone.
- Heart or kidney failure.
- Being high in the mountains.
- The passage of CPAP therapy. During this therapy, SCAS is a side effect that disappears after therapy ends.
Causes of Apnea in Children
In newborns, respiratory arrest in a dream is quite common. This is due to the fact that the respiratory system has not yet fully developed. As a rule, a few weeks or months after birth, nocturnal apnea in infants pass by themselves. Many parents are afraid that this ailment may lead to sudden infant death syndrome. However, there is no scientific evidence that these things are related.
Causes of OSAS in newborns:
- congenital narrowed airways,
- improperly developed muscles of the larynx,
- upper airway obstruction,
- improper development of the jaw, retraction of the tongue back, cleft palate.
The causes of SCAS in newborns can be:
- traumatic brain injury during childbirth,
- increased blood oxygen immediately after birth,
- skull hemorrhages, brain hematomas,
- abnormal brain development.
If the child’s fingers or face turn blue, the pulse slows to 90 beats per minute, when picked up, the baby’s body feels no tone, the arms and legs sag, the baby refuses to breast — an ambulance should be called immediately.
At an older age, adenoids, enlarged tonsils or problems with nasal breathing: allergies or rhinitis can be causes of apnea in children. Also, the child may have a violation of the structure of the facial skeleton or obesity, which interferes with the normal circulation of air in a dream. If you suspect apnea, you must visit a pediatrician or otolaryngologist.
Детям с синдромо апноэ поможет СИПАП-терапия.
Диагностика и лечение ночного апноэ
Для того, чтобы выявить апноэ, следует наблюдать за сном больного. Relatives recognize the first symptoms, subsequent diagnosis will be carried out in a hospital: the flow of air when exhaling, the level of oxygen in the blood and snoring will be checked. Also, the patient is taken a picture of the lungs, a general blood test, a blood test for sugar and a urinalysis are taken. Correct diagnosis is the main guarantee of success in the treatment of apnea, since it will not work out to eliminate this disease - the patient needs to choose an individual treatment that will help a person fully breathe in a dream.
Several different techniques are used to treat OSAS. Almost all patients are prescribed CPAP therapy. It allows you to saturate the lungs with oxygen, spreading the walls of the respiratory tract. After this therapy, respiratory arrest in a dream stops. This procedure is not recommended for patients with central sleep apnea syndrome, as it is not effective.
If the patient has apnea caused by a violation of the structure of the facial skeleton, surgery may be necessary. Also, enlarged tonsils or adenoids blocking the access of oxygen to the respiratory tract can be surgically removed. With allergies, hormonal drops are prescribed. With a small jaw, special intraoral mouthguards can be used that push the jaw forward, allowing air to circulate freely. You need to wear them only during sleep.
Mouthguards are special intraoral devices that promote normal air circulation in sleep.
With SCAS, medication is prescribed to eliminate the cause of apnea. The main task of medicines is to resume the proper functioning of the brain, lungs and heart.
Quitting smoking habits, which are often the only causes of apnea, will be very effective. Alcohol, cigarettes, drugs and sleeping pills - all of these things can provoke regular respiratory arrest in a dream. With obesity, the patient needs to lose weight. A decrease in body weight by 15-20% can save the patient from the problem of night apnea. But self-medication is strictly prohibited - the use of drugs can cause allergies and swelling of the larynx, which will further exacerbate the situation.
Causes of respiratory arrest in sleep, or sleep apnea. Why is this happening and how to treat it.
Partial or complete respiratory arrest in a dream is frightening by suddenness. A person becomes helpless, cannot wake up. From shortage of air, breath is taken, panic begins, discomfort occurs in the neck and throat. People who experience nocturnal suffocation wake up from the fact that they cannot breathe and are afraid to suffocate. There is a feeling that someone is strangling at night, presses on the throat, chest.
Night suffocation occurs due to low oxygen in the body and an excess of carbon dioxide in the blood. This condition is manifested by shortness of breath, muscle tension, a sharp spasm in the throat, pallor of the skin. With a prolonged attack, the patient develops cold sweat, the skin turns blue. Normal breathing is the physiological need of a person. Systematic nightly attacks of suffocation signal a problem. Shortness of breath and lack of air in a dream arise due to a lack of oxygen in the blood and pathological reactions in the body.
A single attack can cause great physical exertion or severe stress.
If breathing periodically stops, there is no air, specialists should contact. Choking in a dream indicates the presence of diseases of the lungs, respiratory tract, cardiac system.
If you notice that you are suffocating at night, consult a specialist.
Symptoms of suffocation
A person is not able to take a full breath.
- The first phase of asphyxia is characterized by increased activity of the respiratory center. The frequency and depth of breathing increases, blood pressure rises, heart is more often contracted, dizzy.
- In the second phase, respiratory movements become rare, heart contractions slow down, fingers and toes, lips, nose tip turn blue.
- In the third phase, pr