Growing laying hens and broilers is the largest area of modern poultry farming and occupies a very important place in animal husbandry in general. It is noteworthy that chickens are convenient and beneficial both for large-scale breeding in industrial poultry farms and for a small family business. The key to the success of such an enterprise are two main factors - a balanced diet of the bird and a thoughtful modern poultry house in which the bird will be comfortable. We would like to talk about the second factor.
Preparation for the construction of the house
The first thing you need to think about is whether you need a chicken coop in principle. In the warm season, chickens can live well in light frame cages, which are easier and cheaper to make than a full-fledged house. So, if you keep a bird only in the summer, then you don’t need a house either.
Another thing is if you intend to receive meat and eggs all year round. In this case, you can’t really do without a chicken coop. And here you already need to seriously prepare for the construction of the house so that the finished construction fully meets your needs.
First of all, you need to understand what livestock the house will be designed for. It is one thing if the farm contains no more than fifty animals at a time, and quite another - when you intend to create a mini-poultry farm for several hundred heads of birds.
The second important question requiring a clear answer even before the start of construction is the specialization of your farm. For example, laying hens certainly need nests in which they can safely carry. In turn, meat broilers do not need such equipment, respectively, the internal structure of the house will be much simpler.
Finally, the poultry production cycle is also important. If you plan to get young animals from your own incubators, you will have to provide for an appropriate place in the chicken coop under them and under the hatched chicks. If the young will be procured on the side, the design of the house will be simpler.
Place under the house
Having dealt with organizational issues, you can proceed to the very first construction stage - the choice of a suitable place on the site. It must meet several important criteria:
- Security. The house and the walking area should be located so that chickens are not threatened by wild / domestic animals or people. This means that the chicken coop is best located away from the edge of the site, which is adjacent to the forest (forest belt), road and other potentially dangerous objects. So, you will reduce the risk that the animal or person wants to get into the house or walking area to steal your pets.
- Silence. Although the chickens themselves are quite noisy birds, they are nevertheless rather shy, so it is better to protect them from possible loud noises. This is especially important for laying hens. For this reason, the chicken coop should be built away not only from the road, but also from other sources of noise, for example, from a home workshop, where there is a lot of noisy power tools.
- Microclimate. In general, chickens are quite hardy and not very demanding on the conditions of detention. However, in order to increase their productivity and prevent outbreaks of infectious diseases, it is better to avoid low-level semi-swampy areas when building a chicken coop. It is also highly desirable that the chicken house is in the shade of trees or other objects, which would prevent it from overheating in the sun.
Choosing a place for the chicken coop, one should not forget about the convenience of carrying out construction work and the subsequent maintenance of the chicken coop.
Optimal area of the house and walking area
Poultry productivity is significantly reduced if the chicken coop or on the walking area is too crowded. In order to get good indicators of live weight gain in broilers and egg production in laying hens, you need to pay attention to the calculation of the optimal area of the house.
According to the most average calculation method, one square place in the house is enough for 2-3 birds. Of course, a multi-tiered industrial poultry house, where laying hens are kept in cages, can accommodate even more, but this option will require a much more complex organization of the entire production process, and therefore is not suitable for small private poultry houses.
Even in winter, poultry should walk in the fresh air for at least a few hours. Well, in the summer she spends all day on the street. Although in villages chickens are usually allowed to freely walk around the infield, this option is not suitable for a serious poultry farm. Too many risks and little control over animals. For this reason, a fenced walking area should adjoin the house directly, which, on the one hand, will prevent chickens from wandering around the site and ruining the garden, and on the other hand, will effectively protect them from predators and thieves.
To build a walking platform is easy. To do this, you need only the usual grid for the houses and several wooden poles on which it will be fixed. The area of the walking yard should ideally be calculated according to the formula of 2 square meters. m per chicken. However, this option is not always suitable for really large farms, which simultaneously contain several hundred heads. In this case, you can slightly reduce the area of the walking area.
Foundation of the house
Having cleared the construction site from shrubs, large stones and other interfering objects, you need to dig a pit along the area of the future house. A large depth is not required - 30 cm is enough. The walls and bottom of the pit must be covered with a galvanized grid and filled with a small layer of concrete mortar. Mesh and concrete together will prevent rats and foxes from entering the coop through the floor.
Next, we build the usual foundation - we make the formwork around the perimeter and fill it with concrete. After the foundation has stood for several days and the concrete in it has dried sufficiently, you can proceed with further work. Formwork is removed from the hardened foundation and the internal area of the foundation is covered with soil removed from the foundation pit.
There is an alternative method that is suitable for a small house with a small area. Instead of digging a foundation pit and constructing a traditional strip foundation, you can implement a poultry house project. At a cost it will come out in the same money, or even cheaper. At the same time, a house elevated above the ground will be unattainable for rats and foxes.
Wall and roof construction
The walls of the house are built using the standard method. If the foundation is concrete, then it is imperative to isolate the walls from it with a layer of roofing material or other insulating material. The walls themselves can be made of any convenient material, including brick. If a pile foundation was used, then waterproofing is not required, however, walls can only be made of light materials - wood, sandwich panels, etc.
Next, we make the floor in the house. Theoretically, you can even leave an earthen floor, but it is more difficult to clean, and there is always a certain question with infection safety. For this reason, it’s better to build a simple wooden floor. For this, wooden logs are laid in increments of about half a meter. Boards are laid tightly on top. And it is better to use a tenon-groove fastening method. It is more difficult, but more reliable. In the northern regions, it is recommended to additionally insulate the floors by laying some inexpensive insulation (for example, straw) under the boards.
The internal height of the walls in the chicken coop should be at least 180 cm, so that there is enough space in the room for normal circulation.
The roof in the poultry house is made the simplest - single or double sloped with simple wooden rafters. To keep the heat in the house more efficient, the attic space can be filled with straw or hay.
The inside of the house
In summer, hens only spend the night in the house, but in winter they spend most of the day here. To make the bird comfortable in this room, you will certainly have to build comfortable wooden perches. They are located away from doors and ventilation pipes. Perches are a kind of wide "ladder" installed at an angle of about 45 degrees. At the same time, horizontal rods of perches are made at a distance of about 35-40 cm from each other. One chicken requires about 20 cm of roost length.
If it is planned to keep laying hens in the chicken coop, the internal structure of the chicken house will certainly have to be supplemented with nests in which the laying hens will lay their eggs. Nests are made in the farthest corner of the room so that no one bothers the chickens. When keeping hens by the walking method, the nests are made in one, at most two tiers, since the birds will have to independently get to the nests. The nest itself should be a “box” with a threshold and dimensions of approximately 30x30x30 cm. The number of nests is calculated based on the formula - one for five layers.
Nests are best done closer to the floor, but not less than 40 cm from it. So that other birds do not sit on top of the roof of the nest and do not interfere with the laying hen, the roof is made inclined at 45%.
Finally, there should be feeders and drinkers in the house so that the birds have constant access to food and water. Feeders should be placed away from roosts so that hens do not defecate in their own food. For the same reason, the feeders should be raised 5-10 cm above the floor. At the same time, one chicken should have about 10-15 cm of the length of the feeder.
High-quality air exchange between the chicken coop and the outer space is the key to good health and high productivity of poultry. Moreover, the role of ventilation in the house remains both in winter and in summer.
You must always remember that a lack of fresh air will worsen the microclimate in the chicken coop, which will immediately affect the health of chickens. In turn, excessive ventilation will provoke drafts, which are no less dangerous for animals in the winter, and will also increase heating costs. Good ventilation is necessary in order to maintain an acceptable level of humidity in the room, as well as a safe concentration of carbon dioxide and ammonia.
At a small private poultry farm, you can use any of the following types of ventilation:
- Simple range hood. In this case, a window or window is meant, which, in tandem with the door, can provide a normal microclimate in the house. At the same time, it is important to correctly position the window so that drafts do not occur due to it. It is best to make a window above the door, or just in the ceiling. This is far from an ideal system, which, however, is quite suitable for a spacious chicken coop with a small amount of bird.
- Supply and exhaust ventilation. The best option for most private houses. It consists of two separate pipes - through one air enters the chicken coop, through the other exits. An exhaust pipe is installed in the ceiling above the perches. The supply pipe through which air enters the chicken coop is mounted in the wall or also in the roof, but in any case lower than the exhaust, and as far as possible from the perches.
- Mechanical ventilation. The most expensive, but at the same time the most effective method of ventilation. Air circulation is provided by a mains-operated fan. Such systems are suitable in poultry houses for one hundred or more birds.
Lighting and heating in the chicken coop
It has been scientifically proven that house lighting directly affects bird productivity. Long daylight hours are a guarantee of good health and the rapid physiological development of chickens. Thus, neglecting the lighting of the chicken coop, you doom your farm to lower productivity in advance. High-quality and long-term coverage of the chicken coop contributes to:
- increase the number and size of eggs laid,
- faster growth and mass gain of chickens,
- chick survival
- an increase in the laying period of laying hens.
For full lighting of the house, ordinary medium-power lamps - 40-60 watts are suitable. In this case, the calculation is based on the formula of 60 watts per 6 m² of area.
As for the house heating system, in regions with a temperate and warmer climate, artificial heating is not required. If the walls, floors and roof are well insulated, the heat from the birds themselves will be enough to maintain an acceptable temperature in the house. In colder regions, the chicken coop will have to be heated with some kind of heating device. Here a lot depends on which method will be the most affordable in terms of cost: an electric heater, or stove heating.
Construction begins with a project
In the farm there are no undeveloped areas. Still, chickens need to be provided with a comfortable living environment. In a quiet place, behind a dull fence on a hill, we create a do-it-yourself house. It includes a house and a walking area. In the summer, a covered room is needed for nightly resting of birds on a perch and for arranging nests for laying hens. A walking platform should protect the flock from chicken hunters, from the scorching sun, and give the opportunity to warm soft land.
The size of a prefabricated house with your own hands depends on the number of chickens. By standards for 5 goals, a square meter of habitat is required. For 10 goals, a 2x2 m chicken coop is usually arranged and a covered area with an adjoining 2x3 m. An easy summer construction is carried out from boards or plywood mounted on a frame. Inside, perches and nests are installed. Access should be arranged to serve the chicken coop. In general, a prefabricated house should include:
- a berth with perches of 20 cm per individual,
- boxes for laying eggs, 1 for 6 layers,
- a roof protecting from rain and overheating on a hot day,
- walking with a canopy from the sun and a mesh border 1.8 m high,
- feeders and drinking bowls mounted on the outside of the net.
- wooden ladder connecting the chicken coop with the paddock.
A neatly built, rationally arranged chicken house, as in the photo, will decorate the territory.
In such a house, the use of manual labor is minimal. The egg drawer is forward, the hinged floor is easy to clean from below. Enough for three hens. For keeping more birds there are other options for light airborne structures. It is important to create an aesthetic building so that it fits into the landscape.
But the construction and installation of a chicken house as in this photo requires skills and should be entrusted to professionals.
Building chicken houses with winter coops
The construction of the chicken coop for the winter keeping of livestock begins with the arrangement of the foundation. The base for the house is carried out taking into account the size of the room and the load on the sole. The chicken coop can be installed on concrete blocks reinforced in the corners. The rest of the space is filled up or laid with a brick tape. The base, the lower beam, should lie on the foundation tape, horizontally.
The walls are made of timber or double walls are mounted on racks with a gasket inside the insulation. It can be any filler, including dry sawdust. The windows in the winter house are small. You can do with artificial lighting. The height of the walls is higher than human height. The floor is double wooden. The ceiling is covered with a heater from above, the roof is gable, for easy snow melting.
The door adjusts tightly, a vestibule is needed in front of the entrance so as not to cool the chicken coop at the entrance in winter. The ventilation openings are 2 pipes with flaps mounted in the walls. It is necessary to provide for heating the room with a heater or put a potbelly stove, but it should not be accessible to hens.
Birds at a temperature in the chicken coop below 15 0 C do not rush, at minus - they freeze the crests. Humidity and temperature must be controlled using ventilation pipes and heating. With excessive humidity in the heat, chickens and lice-eaters can get on.
The experience of arranging a winter chicken house showed that the maintenance of chickens should be carried out at a meter from the floor. In the lower part, organize a daily walk with bathtubs for bathing in an ash-sand mixture and for pecking minerals and hay dust. The warm room below serves for walking, with a hole to the street. In the upper part, perches are erected with extendable pallets for cleaning guano. A layer of sawdust is poured in pallets and on the floor. From the outside of the bedroom there are reinforced feeders along the entire length of the room, so that all individuals simultaneously have free access to feed and water. Nests are installed at the top and bottom in nooks and crannies.
Perches should be installed 50 cm from the floor surface for free take-off. For each chicken, 20 cm of pole length is required. It is necessary to exclude drafts in the room. Windows can not be cut. They will be replaced by electric lighting. Due to the absence of cracks and evaporation from chickens in the room, high humidity is established. Какой обмен воздуха должен быть в птичнике? Можно приоткрыть дверь буржуйки, в щель тёплый воздух будет выходить вместе с влагой. Свежий воздух поступит через дверную щель и вентиляционные трубы.
В летнее время куры заходят самостоятельно на ночёвку по лазу, если рядом обустроена выгульная площадка, обтянутая сеткой для птичников.
The photo shows the construction of a chicken house and the construction of a corral and vestibule in one block. The room is suitable for year-round maintenance of laying hens.
The poultry house for 10 heads is made on a timber frame, upholstered with boards on both sides. The roof is made of boards, covered with reeds. The foundation is columnar, made of wooden poles impregnated with machine oil and resin. Simultaneously with the pouring of the foundation, a frame is installed. Double walls with backfill insulation. Outside, protection against blowing is created by upholstering with cardboard or roofing felt.
A metal net is laid on the mud floor from the penetration of rodents into the chicken coop.
A plank floor is mounted from above, covered with a thick layer of sawdust. The ceiling and roof are performed with a slope in the opposite direction from the walk. There is a double window 60x120 cm, electrical wiring in waterproof design. There is a hole for walking and perches. The insulated vestibule is at the same time a place of food storage. The walk is arranged under the main room and is mounted from polycarbonate for the penetration of light. Hens are protected from the wind, there is no snow in the fence, fresh air. The metal mesh creates a protective barrier.
It is not difficult to build a chicken coop if the rules for keeping crested livestock in summer and winter are already known.
What should be a house for chickens
The chicken house should be not only cozy inside, but also beautiful outside
Poultry, as well as humans, need a comfortable living environment, so before starting construction it is worth highlighting several important factors that will make it possible to make a warm and cozy chicken coop. This room has a number of requirements:
- Temperature mode. If you plan to keep the bird in the winter, it is important to worry about the proper temperature. So, in winter the temperature should not be lower than 12 ° С. There should not be drafts inside the premises, they pose a threat to the health of the bird. In summer, the indoor temperature should not exceed 25 ° C. If these temperature conditions are not observed, then the chicken will cease to lay eggs.
- Lack of moisture. To prevent the chickens from getting sick, there should not be high humidity inside. Ventilation can solve this problem. There are several ways to arrange it; it can be forced or natural.
- Lighting. Light is life. As a result, the laying of chickens depends on the presence of light. There should be light bulbs inside the chicken house that scatter warm yellow light. To ensure the lighting mode, some home craftsmen use automatic timers and relays to turn on / off the light at a given time. When conducting an electrician, everything must be done so that all cables are inaccessible to chickens.
Safety for birds above all
- Calm. For a normal and calm life of chickens there should not be much noise around. Therefore, the selected place must be isolated from the busy country house.
- Security. This is another important criterion for keeping the bird calm. The chicken coop should be protected from rodents and other predatory animals. Given this, many decide to build on a columnar base.
Where is the best place for the chicken coop
The chicken coop should be away from the apartment building
The location of the house is an important stage in the preparatory work. You need to think not only about yourself, so that an unpleasant smell does not penetrate into a residential building, but also about the comfort of chickens. For example, some breeds do not like frequent invasion of their territory. Because of this, they begin to rush worse.
A suitable place would be a remote corner in the territory of your summer cottage. If you have a farmyard, it is important to remember that extraneous noise also negatively affects their egg production. Often, many decide to attach a chicken coop to an existing barn. But here, consider what kind of pet the chickens will be neighbors - calm or mostly noisy.
When choosing a place, it is important to worry about a place for their walking. Often you can watch the picture when the hens walk around the yard. This does not add beauty, in addition, on the threshold of your house you can stumble upon the “present” left by them. The area for walking chickens should be limited. As a rule, up to 2 m 2 is allocated per head. So, with the content of 20 chickens, the site should have dimensions of 4 × 10 m. And this is only for their walking.
Great open-air cage for walking chickens in the summer
If you cannot afford such an area, keep in mind that some summer residents resort to the original solution, making walking tunnels along the perimeter of the territory from a metal mesh.
The selected location should be at the same time with shaded and sunlit areas. A shadow will protect the birds from overheating on hot days, but at the same time they can warm themselves in the sun in cool weather.
Video: best chicken coop place in the farmyard
For the construction of the chicken coop, it is recommended to choose a high place. This will prevent flooding during the rainy season or when snow melts. If this is not possible, dig a drainage ditch to remove excess moisture. Although the hill can be made artificially, pouring rubble, gravel or earth.
Metal mesh tunnel. A great solution so that chickens do not walk around the yard and garden The windows of the chicken coop should preferably be located on the south side for better and longer exposure to sunlight inside the room. Also on the south side it is recommended to install a hole, a door and build an aviary. The south side is most protected from cold winds. The chicken coop should be large enough to fit and coexist Having decided on the construction site, it is necessary to decide what dimensions the house will have. This parameter is affected by several factors. It is necessary to build on the maximum number of chickens and accurately calculate the usable area:
What should be the size of the house
The windows of the chicken coop should preferably be located on the south side for better and longer exposure to sunlight inside the room. Also on the south side it is recommended to install a hole, a door and build an aviary. The south side is most protected from cold winds.
The chicken coop should be large enough to fit and coexist
Having decided on the construction site, it is necessary to decide what dimensions the house will have. This parameter is affected by several factors. It is necessary to build on the maximum number of chickens and accurately calculate the usable area:
Separately, it is worth mentioning about chickens. They should have individual rooms, separated from adults. This will allow them free access to feed. However, you should not allocate too much space for them. As a rule, a small box is enough for an overnight stay. On the other hand, one should not create conditions for their crush.
This small chicken coop will fit up to 10 chickens
So, a house designed for keeping 10 chickens can have a size of 2 × 5 m. As for the height, it should be convenient for you when you have to go there. Too low a ceiling will create discomfort when cleaning and cleaning the chicken coop. The optimum height is 2.2 m.
Given this, it will be practical to equip a gable roof, raising the ridge to 2.2 m, and leaving the walls at a height of 1.5 m. Such a chicken coop will be convenient for both hens and its maintenance. On the other hand, it is much easier to implement a pitched roof. Sockets can be installed in the low shaded area.
We have prepared several suitable diagrams and drawings. Based on them, you can make an individual project or build a house according to your needs. We suggest you look at some interesting options in the next section.
Drawings and schemes: finished projects for the construction of the house
Dimension drawing of the chicken coop outside and inside
Drawing of a chicken coop, top view. Great plan to implement
The diagram shows the sizes of the aviary for walking birds
The scheme of the competent location of all rooms in the chicken coop
The scheme of the chicken coop, in which up to 10 chickens can get along
The layout of the perch and nests in relation to each other
Diagram of the distance between important elements of the chicken coop
So, in order to summarize everything, for the construction of a chicken coop for 10 hens, drawings should be calculated based on the following parameters:
- The area is more than 4 m 2.
- Availability of up to 4 nests.
- Feeding troughs should be along the wall and opposite the perch.
- Outside there should be access to cleaning and a feeding system.
- The drinker and feeder must be at least 50–100 mm high from the floor.
- The floor should be smooth, but not slippery.
- Perched at a height of about 600 mm.
- The area of all windows should not exceed 10% of the floor area.
- A cage for walking is recommended.
- Be sure to have a ladder in the chicken coop.
In addition, the area and layout of the future house will depend on what you want to place inside it. To save and optimize the internal space, a perch pole is installed. An ordinary driftwood usually copes with this role. Chickens can sleep on it.
When organizing a roost, it is important to consider that one bird will lay one egg in 1-2 days. Therefore, for 4 chickens, one place will be enough. Perches should be high, as this will prevent damage to the egg. Moreover, they should be located in a clean, dry place and remote from the place of accommodation. Otherwise, chicken droppings may be on the eggs.
As for the standards, there is SNIP 30-02-97, which indicates the following room parameters:
- In the summer cottage you can keep and grow no more than 40 heads of chickens.
- From the chicken coop to the border of your territory should be at least 4 m.
- If there is a junction with a residential building, then from the front door to the house should be at least 7 meters.
- Carrying out an extension to the house, it is recommended to coordinate the project with the architectural commission.
If hens are kept for personal needs outside the city, there are no norms and restrictions.
Types of chicken coops based on needs
Chicken coops can take on many forms and types. The main thing is that they satisfy the needs of birds
There are several types that can be built:
Without going out
This is one of the easiest options to implement. In this case, the chickens will always be closed until they are released.
In this case, the chickens will be able to go out on their own. As a result, they will have more space for walking.
Such a chicken coop will be different from its counterparts, since the walls, roof and floor should be well insulated.
Build new or remodel finished premises
It is easy to reconstruct a shed under a chicken coop
If you have an unnecessary barn or garage, then perhaps you should consider reconstructing it. You can significantly save on the purchase of building material. You will only need to equip the premises inside for normal living of chickens.
On the other hand, such a room is not always suitable. For example, inconvenient location, small area and the like. Today, there are many ready-made schemes that will help to quickly develop a finished project. In this matter, you should not think only about saving money. As mentioned above, the egg production of birds and their health depend on how comfortable the conditions inside the chicken coop will be.
If you nevertheless gave preference to the old room, then make sure that there are no sawn timber covered with lead paint or used previously for storing various chemicals. All this can have a harmful effect on the health of chickens.
Stages of the construction of the house
Having become acquainted with all the requirements and regulations for the construction of the chicken coop, we outline the main stages of construction:
Stage 1 - design.
2 stage - manufacture of the foundation.
3 stage - construction of walls and partitions.
4th stage - erection of the roof.
5 stage - manufacture of flooring.
6 stage - “furniture”.
7 stage - warming.
8 stage - production of heating.
These are, perhaps, the main construction processes that you should tune into. We will consider all these processes, as well as give a few step-by-step instructions.
The foundation is the foundation of any building
Very often, the foundation is a columnar coop
Installing the chicken coop directly on the ground is a bad option, so a foundation is necessarily built. For the house, the base can be made using different technologies:
In the manufacture of slab foundations, the technology of work is as follows:
Description of the work process
Step 1 - Markup
To begin with, using the cord and pegs, the perimeter of the future structure is indicated.
At this stage, remove the upper fertile soil layer to a depth of 350 mm.
Step 3 - backfill the pillow
Now the bottom of the base is covered with sand and small gravel. Everything is carefully rammed.
Step 4 - Formwork
Before pouring concrete along the perimeter of the foundation, formwork from boards is installed.
Step 5 - Concrete Work
In conclusion, a layer of concrete should be poured onto the made pillow. Preliminarily, a woven reinforcing mesh with cells up to 100 × 100 mm is laid on the bottom. For concrete, cement M200 is used.
As you can see, the process of making the foundation is not so complicated. Although it takes a lot of effort. This kind of foundation is ideal for a chicken coop built from blocks or bricks.
The foundation is easy to make from blocks
It is much easier to build a chicken coop on a columnar base. We have prepared step-by-step instructions for you to build a house on a column foundation, so you can find out all the details of this process in the next subsection. The only thing worth saying is that steel pipes, bricks, blocks and similar material can be used as support pillars.
Wall Construction Technology
Walls must be windproof and warm. The choice of material for the construction of walls depends on the foundation made. If a tape or slab was made, then you can use a cinder block, foam block and even brick. However, these materials have a high level of thermal conductivity, so they must be insulated from the outside and from the inside.
The walls of the chicken coop can be made from a USB plate
If the foundation is selected columnar, then it is better to give preference to a light frame structure from wooden bars. A wooden frame is laid on top of the support posts, onto which the entire frame of the future chicken coop is fixed. For the construction of the walls of the walking part, it is recommended to use a metal mesh. It can be fixed on a metal corner.
Another option for building walls is polycarbonate. This building material is practical. For example, it is easy to wash, it is beautiful, strong and reliable. However, such a chicken coop will be problematic to use in the winter season. Some summer residents use logs for construction.
Often used adobe. You can make adobe bricks yourself using clay and chopped straw. Such walls will provide a sufficient degree of heat preservation and comfort. The only problem with this material will be surface leveling.
If adobe is available to you, then the walls from it will also turn out to be quite warm
As you can see, there are many building technologies and materials that can be used to make a reliable and beautiful house. In any case, regardless of the material chosen, it is important to ensure that the walls are decontaminated, in order to avoid the appearance of fungus, bacteria and the like.
Wall insulation - winter version
To keep chickens in the winter, the walls should be insulated. The modern market offers various thermal insulation materials. To insulate the walls of the chicken coop, you can use mineral wool or other plate material, such as polystyrene or foam. To fasten these materials does not require much time and effort.
Mineral wool - an excellent thermal insulation material for a chicken coop
So, if you decide to insulate the walls with mineral wool, then on the walls you should make a frame of boards 50 × 50 mm. The beam is fixed strictly vertically. The step of laying the beam is regulated based on the width of the insulation. So, if the width of the mineral wool is 600 mm, then the pitch of the beam should be 590 mm. This will allow you to tightly pack mineral wool, without leaving possible gaps.
The bars are fixed to the wall with self-tapping screws (if the frame is made of wood) or dowels. It is also recommended to make a vapor barrier layer. To do this, a plastic film is fixed to the wall before the mineral wool flooring. Its installation should be carried out with an overlap of up to 150 mm.
The thickness of the thermal insulation layer must be at least 50 mm. If, after installation of the insulation, you find cracks, then they can be filled with mounting foam.
The original solution for external insulation of the walls of the chicken coop with straw
As for the external insulation of the walls, it is better to use polystyrene or foam. A special plastic dowel with a hat is used for fastening. This method of fastening is used when the walls are built of bricks, blocks and the like. Be sure the heat-insulating layer is closed with a protective plaster using a facade mesh.
In some cases, external insulation should not be done, especially if you live in a warm region. Outside, the chicken coop can simply be sheathed with plywood and painted with moisture-proof paint.
Roof - reliable rain protection
The roof of the chicken coop can have 2 slopes in the opposite direction
The best option is the gable roof of the house. Due to this, the height of the ceiling increases indoors. If the roof is well insulated, then you do not even need a ceiling pad. For covering, the best option would be a metal tile or slate.
Благодаря такой крыше можно легко собирать дождевую воду
Технология изготовления двускатной кровли заключается в следующем:
- Сверху каркаса стен устанавливаются стропила.
- На стропила стелется и прибивается гидроизоляционное полотно. It is necessary in order to prevent the insulating layer from getting wet. The film thickness can be 200 microns. Each waterproofing strip should be overlapped up to 200 mm. It is advisable to glue them together with tape. Due to this, the coating will be completely tight.
- After that, for the roofing, it is necessary to fill the crate. It is packed on top of the waterproofing. The step of the crate will depend on the type of flooring selected.
- When the crate is ready, you can proceed with the installation of the roofing.
Ceiling insulation - additional protection against the cold
The procedure for insulating the ceiling of the house is necessary if you live in a cold region. In this case, floor beams are additionally fixed to the rafter system. On top of the beams, that is, from the attic, you can fix the plywood, which is fastened with ordinary screws.
Ceiling insulation reduces heat loss
Insulating material, such as mineral wool, is placed in the space between the beams. Additionally, you can fix the vapor barrier film. It is attached using a stapler. The ceiling is hemmed with the same plywood, or you can use a wooden lining, drywall and the like.
The floor in the chicken coop should be warm and dry.
Finishing the floor is one of the main events in the internal arrangement of the chicken coop. The finishing method depends on your goals. If you want to breed and keep broilers for meat, then it will be enough to make a light insulated floor. However, the floor should still have a double structure. It’s easy to implement, especially if you have a columnar foundation:
- Beams are fixed to the support frame, which serve as a lag.
- From below it is necessary to hem the boards.
- A heater, such as mineral wool, is placed on top of the boards.
- Next, a finishing floor from the boards is laid.
In the case of making a shallow strip foundation, the floors can be made earthen or adobe. To do this, prepare a mixture of finely chopped straw and clay. The adobe mixture is layered. Each layer is carefully rammed. In this case, before the flooring of the next layer, the previous one should dry. The process is quite lengthy, but the foundation will turn out to be reliable.
The heat-insulated floor will protect paws of hens from freezing
If the foundation is made by plate technology, then on top of concrete it is enough to make a wooden flooring. However, it is better to use a different insulation or lay a waterproofing. Mineral wool absorbs moisture. Further, the floor manufacturing process is as follows:
- The base must be protected from penetrating moisture, so you can cover it with roofing material on top. Cloths must be glued together with a special bitumen mastic. Due to this, a reliable waterproofing of the wooden flooring will be created, which will be completely protected from the penetration of waste from chickens.
- On top of the deck is an embankment of sand, straw, hay or sawdust. However, hay and straw absorb moisture and dry out poorly. Because of this, the flooring will rot and provoke the appearance of fungi and bacteria.
To exclude this probability, a layer of straw or hay must be made thin, and it is recommended to change it regularly. Therefore, as practice shows, it is better to use sawdust for the flooring, especially since they can be easily purchased in the carpentry workshop, sometimes even for free.
The perch in the chicken coop should be comfortable for the bird
One of the main places inside the chicken coop is perch. By perch is meant a wooden pole. It is in it that the chicken spends most of the time. An important rule is not to place perches on top of one another. About 30 cm should be calculated per chicken. The distance between the poles should be about 50 cm.
The location of the feeder is designed so that the chickens do not rake the feed with their paws
As for the location of feeders and drinking bowls, they should be higher. Considering that chickens often arrange “showdowns” on the territory, dust can rise inside the chicken coop. To protect the drinker from dust in it, a small visor should be made from above.
Several nests for laying hens
You should also build slots. These places should be darkened and secluded. This will provide good egg production. There should also be litter inside the nest. The nests themselves are made in the form of boxes that are closed with a removable lid on top. As practice shows, the nests should be equipped with a separate cover. This will allow you to remove the eggs and change the litter.
Original homemade chicken drinker
The location of the feeders should be done at the height of the back of the bird. Due to this, the chicken will not scatter food with its paws, but will get it out by slightly craning its neck. The number of drinking bowls and feeders should be sufficient so that they are enough for all chickens.
Heating - comfort and coziness
Chicken can’t tolerate cold. The cold and drafts are especially severely affecting the legs of chickens, freezing due to the absence of feathers on them. As already mentioned in this article, the indoor temperature should not fall below 12 ° C. If you live in the northern regions, then in addition to warming the walls, floor and ceiling, it is recommended to install heating devices.
In the absence of heating, the bird eats more feed, grows fat and becomes sluggish. These are additional costs. If you breed chicks in an incubator, the heat of the chicken itself may not be enough. For these and other reasons, chicken coop heating is necessary.
Two heating methods: natural and artificial
The chicken coop can be heated by two methods. Natural heating means maintaining a comfortable temperature without the use of heaters. The bottom line is to use the litter mentioned above.
Coop flooring is natural heating
In October, the floor is sprinkled with slaked lime 1 kg / m 2. The thickness of the litter of peat, sawdust, hay or straw reaches 7 cm of thickness. As the chickens live, the litter is crushed and needs to be added. Pre-flooring must be ted with a pitchfork. By spring, the thickness of the litter can reach 25 cm.
The peculiarity of the bedding is that during the composting process it emits heat. Accordingly, a temperature of about 12 ° C is stably maintained in the house. Available heat slows down the decomposition of litter and disinfects pathogenic microbes. But with all this, it is necessary to organize high-quality ventilation. Otherwise, harmful ammonia will accumulate in the chicken coop. In addition, in winter, the ventilation pipe should be covered with a lid for a short time so that warm air does not evaporate quickly.
An electric convector for heating the chicken coop will provide the necessary heat
However, if the temperature outside drops below -10 ° C, then all these methods are ineffective. Another method of heating should be used - artificial. We suggest you consider several options presented in the table:
Features of the organization of heating
This is one of the affordable and affordable heating methods. You can use different heaters, for example, convectors, heaters, fan heaters, oil radiators and more. Select power is necessary based on