The skinned Chukchi women were first cleaned of a layer of subcutaneous tissue and films. In good weather, they would sit down on an old retem - the fur cover of the yaranga, laying on their knees a large wooden board 30 cm wide and a little more than a meter long. On it, the skin was spread out with a pile down and carefully, centimeter by centimeter, with a special scraper wound up, mounted on a meter-long wooden handle, they worked on the leather surface. In the middle, where it is thicker, a larger layer was removed, a smaller layer at the edges.
The peeled hide went through several tanning cycles. It was moistened with a tannin (deer feces bred in meat broth) and left overnight. In the morning and evening, the same operation was repeated. The dried mass was removed only the next day. They did this with a metal scraper alalyatenanvanan, trying not to damage the skin.
When the surface became clean, the hostess spread the skin pile down on the old gem and rubbed it with heels until she felt that the skin was starting to dry out. After that, the skin was turned upside down and left for about a day. Once the moisture came out again, the heel treatment was repeated. The quality of tanning was verified as follows: the skin was folded outward and bitten. If a white mark remains on the bite of the skin, then all the moisture has come out. More experienced women determined the readiness of the skin even by the sound with which the heel glided over it.
The tanned skin was combed. They cut off too thick a coat, snow and ice accumulate in a thick pile in winter, such a skin gets wet faster and dries longer. Good clothes cannot be sewn from it.
For the final drying, the skin was hung on the street for a day. The woman will not do this and the skin, after some time, will warp. Sewing from it will not be possible. After drying, processing continues. The skin is softened and stretched in different directions with a blunt stone scraper until it becomes as soft as the fabric.
Then the final painting operation. After it, the skin no longer freezes in the cold, reliably protects from cold and damp. Prepare a dye from alder bark, collected in the spring. It is insisted in special pots (usually on the urine of pregnant women). During the day the vessels were placed in the sun, in the evening to the fire of the hearth. When the composition acquired a thick red color, they started painting. A bunch of herbs applied the dye in an even layer to the surface of the skin, then rubbed it with the heels. This is the best way to squeeze out excess moisture from the skin and evenly soak it with dye.
Then the skin was folded in half and stored for one night in a dry place. In the morning they hung out for drying. This was done three times, each subsequent time using an increasingly dense dye. By the way, its consistency has always been checked: for the first color it should drain from the hand, for the second it should stretch in a thick jet, for the third it should drip.
The dyed skin was finally dried. Now she is ready for sewing. But just before cutting it, it was again softened with a stone scraper.
Russian tanning of the skin - what is it?
Given our backwardness, this has become our plus. In Russia, they used the so-called vegetable tanning, and Europe switched to chemical for a long time and forever. So, chemical tanning is never washed out completely and rusting is very likely when carbon steel comes into contact with such a skin. So, since we lagged behind Europe another 300 years ago, therefore, we have preserved this vegetable tanning
Chukchi deer skins are tanned in urine. But there the essence is always frost and the smell does not appear.
Urine, for the treatment of hides, was used by the ancient Rimlians
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How to tan a deer skin
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|In recent times, one has to deal with the fact that few hunters are actually skinning deer and elk (especially if the furry season is not quite right and the skin does not reach maximum practical qualities), and raw materials are simply chopped directly with the carcass, or wastes even with previously highly prized kamus. Rarely, even now who uses the skull as a trophy, or hoofs for crafts, people simply forget how it is processed.|
How to use a deer or elk skin to make a wall carpet
Moose skins, as well as large deer, are widely used for the manufacture of beautiful wall carpets in the design of the interiors of hunting houses, apartments, cottages, cabinets. These skins are unsuitable as floor carpets. The fact is that the hair of elk and deer skins has a tubular section and when it dries up after some 1-2 years it begins to break, crumble, and beat out. For floor mats, young reindeer skins can be used. But they, already dressed up, do not have that qualitative state due to the fact that hair knocking over time inevitably occurs and the original appearance of the skin is lost.
For winter carpets, winter skins of bulls and horses are more suitable. Their hair is soft, thick, beautiful, of various colors and shades, and the carpet spread on the floor looks exceptionally elegant.
From the point of view of skinning practice, you will find all the necessary information in the articles at the links below, but The modern technological way of quickly skinning a large ungulate with a golf ball became so popular that it was just not shown to us, both with the help of a heavy SUV, and even with the help of a relatively light ATV, as below.
Well, in general, there really are no problems with this, and the legends and myths about some kind of magic skinning knives have long been of no interest to anyone, since everyone has long since learned to lower their skin from ungulates for a dozen seconds without any knives.
There was a time when, after the shooting of wild boars, roe deer, deer, elk, the skins were subject to mandatory surrender to the hiding places of hides. Then the situation changed. The pendulum swung the other way. The time has come for disorder and mismanagement. In hunting farms, at first, hides were still collected for surrender, but no one took them. In the spring, all the skins were burned. A myriad of first-class leather raw materials was destroyed and ruined. After a successful hunt, hunters threw skins in the forest “to feed raccoons and badgers”.
Skins of wild ungulates are an excellent raw material for the manufacture of special varieties of leathers such as chevro, yuft, suede, husky. But these are the tasks of industrial enterprises, not private individuals. Some "advanced" hunters, having their own vehicles (skins large and heavy), took this "junk" goods, trying to use it for personal purposes. But in a city apartment, something worthwhile could not be done. To do this, you need to have the appropriate conditions, and having these conditions you can make fine products from the skins to decorate your home, and this is the power to do the “right, sensible hunter”.
The skin is removed either on the back, or we are familiar with the carpet
After the skin is removed, it must be spread with the skins up for cooling. Cooling the skins is necessary so that in the future, when it is folded, it is not steamed. After cooling the skin, they begin to clean it of dirt, degrease the mezdra on the deck (filly) with a dead end (blunt iron knife), removing fat and cutting meat ("shrimp" meat). Then, gently spreading it on the floor in a cool room, abundantly fill the skin with salt, rub the salt very carefully in those parts of the skin that have folds - head, flanges. In this position, the skin is completely salted out for 3-4 days. When at the end of this period it is clear that the salt has absorbed fat and blood, the skin is thoroughly cleaned of the old salt, fins and again fill it with an even thin layer of salt, carefully rubbing it into the flesh. If the skin needs to be transported, it is folded in an envelope, bandaged with a cord and taken away.
Skins preserved by the salt method are well preserved in a warm room for two years.
Having brought the canned skin from the hunting area home, proceed to dressing. For dressing the skins of elk and deer, the same chemicals are used as for dressing the skins of other animals. I must admit that dressing them with the old method using bread kvass is not practical, due to its high consumption and certain inconvenience. It is better to use the acid treatment method.
Voluminous moose and deer skins should be made in a large container, where the ratio of liquid to skins would be at least 3-4: 1. The skin should float freely in the tank.
The first operation will be a soak. An aqueous salt solution is used to soak the skins, 45-50 g of salt per 1 liter of water. The temperature of the solution, depending on the conditions, should be no lower than 20 and no higher than 36 degrees C. In order for the skin placed in the soak not to float (the tubular hair contains air inside), a load should be put holding the skin in a flooded position.
The soaking time, depending on the temperature of the solution and the shelf life, can be within 24-48 hours. If during this time the skin is not soaked, it is removed from the old solution and a new one is prepared. Salt is dissolved in water at a temperature of 28-36 degrees C (45 g per 1 liter). The exposure time in this solution, depending on the temperature, can be 24-48 hours. To accelerate the soaking, you can add 100% acetic acid (1 ml / l).
The skin is removed from the soak and hung on a pole for swelling for 1-2 hours, then on the deck (filly) they are meshed with a dead end.
This process is very laborious. In moose, and in deer, the skin is large and heavy, and the hair is high. Having well patched all the skin sections, it is again placed on the soak in the solution of the second soak for 2-4 hours. If it is better to soak the skin, the process time is increased, and 0.5 g / l of zinc chloride, or 0.5 g / l of lime chloride (bleach), or 0.5 g / l of sodium silicofluoride are added to the solution. In such a solution, the time to drainage can be increased to 12-15 hours.
It is necessary to carefully monitor the condition of the hair so that it "does not drip" and does not fall out. Having detected hair loss, immediately remove the skin for swelling. When pulling the skin from the container, you should take it by the mezra, and do not drag it by the long hair, due to the severity of the wet skin, the hair can be pulled out. Remove the skin in parts, hanging on a pole.
The next operation will be degreasing. To do this, add soda ash - 3 g / l and washing powder - 3 g / l to water with a temperature of 40 degrees C. Degreasing lasts 1 hour with frequent stirring, then remove the skin and wash it in water at a temperature of 38 degrees C. In the initial volume of degreasing liquid, add soda ash - 1 g / l and washing powder - 1 g / l. We keep the skin in the solution, turning over, for 30 minutes. We take out the skin and rinse it in warm (32-36 gr. C) water, rinse for half an hour, then hang it on a pole for two hours to make the glass liquid.
We proceed to the next operation - picking. The pickling solution is prepared in the usual way. In water with a temperature of 20-36 degrees C pour salt - 50 g / l and acetic acid 100% in a volume of 2 ml / l. The skin is in this solution for 2 hours, we often turn it over and knead the meat. Then, having removed the skin from the container, add acetic –8 ml / l or sulfuric 1 ml / l acid to the solution. Lower the skin and hold it for 12 hours, periodically turning over and kneading. We take out the skin and add 12-15 ml / l acetic or 2-2.2 ml / l sulfuric acid to the container. Mix the skin and keep it in the solution for 48-72 hours, depending on the size and thickness of the mezra, the skin “keeps up”. Check on the "dryer". Fold the cross in the fingers crosswise and squeeze, we get a whitish cross at the compression site.
Turn the skin over and knead in a pickel carefully, every 2-8 hours, so that the acid enters the mezra evenly. We take out the skin, hang it on a pole, let the picel drain, and lay it out for 12 hours on the bed.
When there is no 100% acetic (glacial) acid, only sulfuric (battery) acid can be used to prepare the pickel. 1 ml / l of acetic acid is equivalent to 0.3 ml / l of sulfuric acid, and 2 ml / l of acetic acid is equivalent in the processes of 0.5-0.6 ml / l of sulfuric acid.
In the process of initial pickling, instead of 8 ml / l of acetic acid, 1.2 ml / l of sulfuric can be used. The aging time of the skins in the solution does not change with such a change.
This recipe is given for skins whose sizes range from 50 to 100 square meters. dm., and with a skin area of more than 100 square meters. dm. the chemical process of dressing, although it will be similar to the above, but the amount of acid in the process of pickling will be different. This also applies to large bear skins, larger than 100 square meters. dm.
At the beginning of the pickling of large (more than 100 sq. Dm.) Skins, pour acetic (5 ml / l) or sulfuric acid (0.8 ml / l) into the first dressing, dissolve urea - 3 ml / l. The exposure time in the solution is 4 hours, often mix the skin. Add acetic acid - 10 ml / l or sulfuric acid - 1.2 ml / l to the second dressing. Pickling time after the second refueling is 12-16 hours. Pour 5 ml / l of acetic or 0.8 ml / l of sulfuric acid into the third dressing. The pickling time after the third dressing will be 36-48 hours with frequent mixing and kneading the skins every 5-8 hours. When a “dryer” appears, remove the skin from the container, hang it on a pole to make the glass liquid, and spread it out for 12 hours.
After processing the skins in a pickel, it is tanned. When tanning with a chemical tanning extract and other chemicals, tanning is carried out in full volume of the spent batch solution. There are several tanning methods that are suitable for other pickled hides methods.
One of the common and affordable methods of tanning the skins of an elk and a deer may be as follows. Chrome alum - 6 g / l is added to the pickel solution (where our skin was pickled) and the skin is kept for 6 hours. Then add soda ash in the amount of 3g / l. Stir well, and keep in solution for 6 hours with stirring in the first two hours every hour. Then we take out the skin and mezdrim to reduce the thickness of the skin, again we put it in the tanning solution for 6-8 hours. At this time, an additional picking of the skin takes place and, as the process ends, an additional pike. After removing the skin and adding tannin extract (aluminum alum - 10 g / l) to the solution, the skin is tanned for 5 hours. Then again removed from the solution and add soda ash 8 g / l and hyposulfite 3 g / l. Exposure in this solution is 10-12 hours. After that, calcined soda 3 g / l is added again. The skin is kept for 8-10 hours, and if necessary, longer. Often mixed. They are removed from the solution, the skin swells and within 12 hours you can additionally cut off the remaining thick areas of the skin.
For drying, the skin is stuffed on cloves on an even wooden board and greased with a spread of grease.
It should be borne in mind that the tanning solution should be warmed up in a container to 30 degrees C for better passage of tanning. The temperature of the solution should not fall below 26 degrees. At the final stage of the process, the solution can be heated to 36 degrees. The skin is removed before heating.
When the skin, stuffed with cloves on the shield, becomes dry, it is removed and set about breaking down on the deck. Due to the large size, the breakdown process is complicated. The breaking (kneading) of the skin is intended to break and separate the fibers of the meshes, which make the skin hard and crusty when dried. When breaking, you must use a special beater. To do this, put the skin on top of the beater with the Mezra down, and on top of it between the shoulder blades put a wooden round timber 10-12 cm thick and 3-4 meters long. One end of the round timber is reinforced at the bottom of a wooden wall or fence. Мялку ставят в 1-1,2 метре от стены. Усилием туловища создают давление на кругляк на его втором конце. В результате чего шкура начинает отминаться. Периодически передвигая шкуру на мялке, можно получить относительно мягкую мездру.
После отминки (размягчения) шкуру слегка влажную, шлифуют до ровного состояния мездры.
Если в процессе сушки некоторые места кожи пересохнут, а это происходит часто из-за разницы в толщине мездры, то эти места увлажняют горячей водой при температуре 50-60 градусов, после чего приступают к разминанию.
In view of the fact that the skin (its wool) after the chemical processes has a dirty appearance, and the skin contains acids, it must be degreased, washed and quenched with residual acids. For this purpose, washing powder in an amount of 3 g / l and soda ash 3 g / l are added to water at a temperature of 40 degrees. Degreasing and washing time 1 hour. The first wash is done in water at a temperature of 38 degrees and with a soda ash content of 1 g / l, washing powder 1 g / l. Rinse for 30 minutes. The second rinse is in clean water at a temperature of 36 degrees, for 30 minutes. After 2 hours of edema, the mezdra is salted by the spread method (the salt content in water is 100 g / l). After that, immediately follows the fatliquoring and also in the spreading method, followed by stuffing on a wooden board (with effort, pull the skin and hammer along the edges of its cloves).
After drying, remove, knead the skin on the crumple and comb the fur.
In the process of work, all established parameters should be fulfilled, because an independent change in the course of chemical operations or a violation of the concentration of components during the preparation of the solution can completely ruin the work of the novice master.
After the skin is worked out, it is possible to hem it with a dense cloth, and frame the edges with a strip of colored cloth, having previously cut an original ornament with a notch. The cloth in color should be in harmony with the fur, should be contrasting, pleasant to look at.
Deer skins. What are they like?
The skin of a pre-calf calf (miscarriage or removed from a fallen or clogged uterus) is called flare. He has a weak and short fur, used most often for the lining of hats, mittens.
The skin of a newborn calf under the age of one month in the European tundra is called fawn, and in the tundra of Western Siberia pawn. These skins are obtained as a result of the accidental death of newborn calves from spring frosts and blizzards. Reindeer herders of newborn calves are not slaughtered especially for receiving a pawn. The most common color of these skins is dark brown, sometimes light brown, rarely white. The soft and low-density coat of a pawn is very different from the coat of an adult deer. Pawns of the best quality are found in calves up to seven days after calving, and then the coat begins to become coarse and discolored. As a rule, hats and other small-sized items are sewn from a pawn.
The skin of a 2.5 - 3-month-old calf, taken at the end of July or in August, - puke. It is very appreciated, as it has an overgrown hairline. Of puking sew outerwear, hats, mittens. These skins usually have a dark back and lighter sides and neck.
Longer and coarser fur outgrowth skins 4 - 5 - month old calf. But appreciated outgrowth not because of the coat - first-class suede is made from it. Products from outgrowth warmer, but also heavier, which sometimes makes movement difficult.
The value of the skin of a 6-month-old calf shot in autumn, in October, the so-called calf bed. She has a thick, dense coat and goes mainly to women's outerwear.
The skin, taken from an adult deer in the winter, is called bed. It has long hair, but its market value is small due to brittleness and fluidity (loss) of the hair, as well as due to defects caused by larvae of the gadfly. From these skins make lower-grade outerwear, sleeping bags, slippers with fur inside, rugs. They also serve as a bed in the plague, used for freight sledges. Of trimmed bed sew fur stockings. She goes to dressing coarse suede.
Part of the skin taken from the legs of an adult deer is especially valued in the North, camus. She has smooth, shiny hair of a brownish, silver gray or white color. Camus Not only very handsome, he also has good durability. From it sew shoes, mittens. Camus is also used to make mosaic patterns when decorating large fur products.
The part of the skin taken from the deer's forehead is called lobbies. She goes mainly to sewing summer men's shoes and bags.
A skin taken from the bottom of the joints of the legs, called with a brushhas hard and coarse hair. But she has one advantage when knocking out, it is easily freed from snow (the content of fluff is small in it). Therefore, soles for shoes are often made from it.
Deer skin is one of the most common materials in the North. Even today, most residents of the older tundra sew elegant clothes from them, make bags, carpets and many household items that are so indispensable in the harsh climate of the tundra.
Some articles earlier on this topic: