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Instructions for facing the base with natural stone

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I greet everyone on the pages of my blog "building a house with our own hands!"
Today I want to remind you that before you finish facing a house with a stone, you need the right surface preparation walls. In fact, preparation is needed always and everywhere, but laying a stone requires special attention. Therefore, I want to talk about this in more detail.

The facade of the house is faced with decorative stone under slate.

Facing stone can be laid not only on concrete, plastered and brick walls. It is possible to veneer foam-block constructions, a metal and even a wooden surface. But before embarking on the wall cladding, it is necessary to pre-prepare them, align the walls with plumb lines.

Surface preparation for facade cladding with stone

There is another option for preparing wood surfaces.

The wall sections between the girdle and the cornice, and the sections between the base and the girdle are hung separately. Suspending occurs in accordance with the markings of the vertical axial lines: the axes of the protrusions, openings and pilasters. Plumb marking lines are applied along the entire height of the cladding. First of all, planes of walls and external corners are hung up and only then slopes of openings. If concrete or brick surfaces are satisfactorily even, then the stone can be laid without any preparation. If not, it’s better to plaster them first - the hillocks are cut down, and the cavities are covered with cement mortar.

Metal and wood surfaces require more thorough preparation. The metal must be cleaned of dirt and rust, then fix the metal mesh. The wooden surface is first vaporized with, for example, a glassine, and then a stucco metal mesh is attached to it. If the wall of the house is not even enough, then an equalizing layer of plaster is applied over the grid, which must be allowed to dry before laying the finishing stone on it. If the surface is relatively smooth, you can do without leveling - the grid will still be closed with an adhesive layer on which the stone will hold. How to apply plaster, see this article.

There is another option for preparing wood surfaces. The walls are sheathed with a wooden crate, cement-bonded slabs (CSP) are mounted on it and an artificial stone is already laid on this "crate". This option, you guessed it, will be slightly more expensive, but due to it it will be possible to warm the house - the insulation fits into the space between the wall and the DSP. This option is especially advantageous in that a gap is created between the wall of the house and the plates, which normalizes the moisture exchange process of the supporting wooden structure.

Facade stucco mesh on the wall surface increases strength

Particular attention must be paid to shabby surfaces. Poorly-maintained parts of the old plaster must be removed immediately. Paint and tiles must also be removed. If the surface is porous, then it is proposed to use special primer mixtures to strengthen it. Priming does not strengthen the base, but only reduces its water absorption, which contributes to the correct course of the hardening of the adhesive layer, on which the facing stone will be laid.

Plastering and priming the facade of the house before facing work

In addition, the primer layer increases the adhesion of the solution to the base. If necessary, plaster metal mesh can be fixed to all of the above surfaces.

Before starting work, it is better to sort the facing stone according to their size, color tone and marking. Plates should have smooth front surfaces, without any damage (cracks, curvatures, broken corners, etc.).

Stone laying

The idea is that a facing stone can easily stay on a cement mortar, but still it is better to install it using special cement-sand adhesive solutions made from special types of glue or dry mixes (both of them are prepared and used in strict compliance with all instructions manufacturer).

Note: see how to choose a decorative stone in this article.

The solution is applied either to the wall or to the back flat surface of the stone, which in principle leads to the same result. The back of the tile and wall is recommended to be slightly moistened with water before laying. The thickness of the mortar between the wall and the back of the tile should not exceed 20 mm. In the process of laying, it is necessary to periodically monitor by tapping the degree of filling of the wall with a solution so that voids are not obtained.

Artificial decorative stone can be laid in two ways: without seams and with jointing. In the second method, stones are stacked at a distance of 1.5-2.5 cm from each other. Then the seams are filled with a special composition. At the end of the work, all external seams in the lining should be filled with mortar and embroidered. This type of installation is considered the most common, since it fits most types of facing stone and allows better sealing of the facing masonry.

At seamless fashion cladding elements are laid close to each other, as a result of which filling with grout is not required. But keep in mind that some types of layered decorative stone need to be laid only without seams.

Rectangular long stones will look much prettier and natural if stacked horizontally.

Slate stone tiles

During stone laying under the slate (comes in the form of tiles), it is important to observe the correctness of vertical and horizontal seams. To preserve the natural appearance, you need to make seams as early as possible. This type of tile can be laid without seams at all, which means that grouting of joints is not required here.

With a trowel, the excess adhesive solution is leveled at the edges of the tile before laying the following. This allows you to lay tiles tightly against each other. When working with tiles under a mountain rock or river stone, you need to plan the location of stones in advance so that the stone is cut as little as possible. This will preserve the natural forms.

In order for the facing stone laid on the foundation to look more natural, and in order to avoid getting soil containing alkali and other minerals on its surface, it is necessary to start facing at least 5 cm above the ground. This can be achieved using specially prepared wooden supports to achieve a perfectly even masonry border.

I do not recommend using stone cladding if you do not have or have a damaged drainage system. During outdoor work, the absence or improper installation of jambs, downspouts and gutters can lead to the formation of spots and gutters on the surfaces of the tiles. Also, under such conditions, the masonry can become stained and, in combination with temperature changes, its surface can be destroyed.

The process of laying the tiles step by step

The process of laying the tiles looks like this step by step.

Facing the facade of the house with natural stone

Take tiles from different boxes. Lay them out in front of you to visually assess the colors, shapes and sizes of the tiles you acquired. Consider several design options. Better to alternate: small stones with large, smooth stones with stones of complex structure, thin with thick.

When laying tiles in dry or hot weather, the back side of each tile should be wet with a damp sponge or moistened properly with water. This will prevent excessive absorption of moisture from the adhesive. If the tile is laid on a stone, concrete or rough surface, then these surfaces must also be moistened before applying an adhesive solution to them.

It is not necessary to lay a stone or tile in frosty weather (from 0 gr. C and below, also take into account that there can be frosts at night) - the solution will not cling to the surface. Do not use different antifreeze additives to reduce the level of hardening of the adhesive. Dilute the solution with water in the indicated proportions. A dry and friable solution will not ensure proper installation, and vice versa, an excessively wet mixture will not set and stain the tile.

First of all, you should fix the corner elements. But note that they have one side short and the other long. During laying, alternate the lengths of the sides in the opposite direction. Use a trowel or trowel to apply the solution on a small area to avoid premature setting of the mixture before laying the tiles. The adhesive solution can also be applied directly to the back of the tile. Avoid getting mortar on the front of the tile. Remove accidentally spilled solution with a brush, but only after the mixture dries a little and becomes friable.

Artificial stone can have special corner elements, the lining begins with them

Decorative elements (these are special or the same corner elements) are fixed around the door and window openings. And only after they start laying the upper, and then all subsequent horizontal rows. Tile can stack from top to bottom, even from bottom to top. Many people believe that the tile is laid only from the bottom up. This is the wrong opinion. For example, you need to partially clad the wall (not to the full height), it would be more reasonable to finish the cladding with whole uncut tiles. This is only possible if the tiles are laid from top to bottom. But then the bottom of the cladding will consist of cut tiles. Many construction companies and manufacturers advise laying stone or tile from top to bottom also because the solution did not reach the previously facing surface. In principle, you can mount it because it will be more convenient for you.

An attractive appearance can be achieved by laying tiles close to each other. With the seamless method, simply press each tile into the solution layer so that a certain amount of glue appears from under the edges of the tile. Continue horizontal laying, completing each row to the end, before proceeding to the next. And constantly monitor the correctness of the seams.

When laying with jointing, lay individual tiles close to each other, giving the joints the same thickness - 1.5-2.5 cm. I recall that in order to get a more natural appearance of the cladding, the joints should be made as narrow as possible, on average it is 1 cm.

In the process styling you will always need incomplete elements. They can be obtained either by cutting whole tiles, or using a battle that often comes in boxes. The facing tile can be cut and made into any shape using special pliers, an hatchet or a grinder with a diamond wheel. Cut and align the tiles to achieve the same joint width.

The cropped side is best placed either below or above the angle of view. To improve the overall appearance, cover the chipped or cut edges with adhesive. Even during facing, it is necessary to regularly monitor the quality of the front surface: the same pattern of the facing products, their shade, thickness and filling of the seams, the correct dressing and fastening of the facing products, the horizontal rows, the verticality of the slopes and angles.

Stitching

TO stitchingusually begin after 24 hours, when the stone adheres firmly to the surface. Tile grout will not work here - it is recommended to use only special solutions that are recommended by the manufacturer of the facing material. Such grouts have different colors, which allows you to create the most elegant wall decoration.

When jointing joints, it is better to use a regular plastic bag to fill them with mortar. The same technique is used that confectioners practice in the manufacture of roses on cakes. Try not to allow the grout to get on the front of the tile.

Remove accidentally stained spots with a broom or dry brush only after the grout dries. Never use a metal or wet brush for these purposes.

After the solution has set and there will be no fingerprints on it, smooth the seams with a special narrow tool (jointing) or a wooden spatula. Setting time depends on climatic conditions and wall surface. Correct and even seams will give the masonry the most flawless appearance.

In the evening, when the mastic has already dried up enough, remove excess mastic from the masonry surface with a brush or a broom and clean the surface of the tile.

Safety precautions

Precautions for laying tiles or stone: when cutting tiles, use safety glasses, do not use a metal or wet brush when cleaning tiles from mastic residues - this causes spots to appear which will be very difficult to get rid of later, never use acid and oxygen-containing preparations to clean the tiles.

Also, protective overalls and gloves are required.

Recommendations and secrets for laying stone

In conclusion, I would like to summarize and give recommendations, to reveal the nuances of the technology of laying artificial or natural stone:

Laying tiles for seamless slate, level check

  • stone facing on solutions is allowed after the load on the walls reaches at least 65% of the design, i.e. after mounting the roof, windows and doors.
  • mortar for facade cladding must provide very strong adhesion to the stone and the wall, the grade of the mortar should not be less than 150 in strength. Portland cement M500 is used for preparation, and additives that increase hydrophobicity, such as organosilicon liquids, soap-oil. If the type and brand of the solution is not indicated in the project, before buying in a hardware store, study the reviews and recommendations for the individual companies and brands of solutions that they offer - approach this responsibly, it will be unpleasant if all the work goes down the drain.
  • solutions should not form efflorescences on the stone after drying, they are especially noticeable on a dark tile.
  • for the preparation of the solution, it is more profitable to purchase a construction mixer than a concrete mixer. In addition, the cooking process will be much faster.
  • to protect the plates and facing elements from the spray of mortar, you need to cover the surface with paper or film, or lay the stone from top to bottom.
  • the ambient temperature at which stone laying on the mortar is permissible is desirable not less than 5 g. C, the extreme limit is 0 g. C. Consider also that at night there can be frosts, in which case the water freezing in the solution leads to expansion, disruption of bonds, as a result - the strength is much less. Anti-frost additives can partially compensate for this process, but miracles can also not be expected even if the temperature is lower than -5 gr. C, it’s worthwhile to think about electric heating, with further covering with a warming material a section of the wall with recent masonry, or abandon the facing work before the onset of heat.
  • when facing at an altitude, in many cases it is easier and more profitable to rent collapsible metal scaffolding rather than ordering lumber (which is not cheap, especially in the steppe regions), and collecting woods manually.

Well, that seems to be all that is most important to know about the decorative laying of stone. In the next article, I would like to introduce you to clinker tiles and how to properly lay them. And so far I have everything, until new articles.

Types of stone for cladding

Laying the stone on the base is carried out according to the technology, depending on the selected type of material. An adhesive solution is used for all methods, but in the details the processes can vary greatly. All basement stone slabs can be divided into the following types: 1. Raw material for facing the basement. This is pebble, cobblestone or layers with an untreated front surface, which allows you to create a surface with the original color, pattern or texture. Most often, slabs or pebbles have different sizes and colors, which allows you to create an unusual design. 2. The processed material for facing the base. This technology involves the use of the following types of stone: strip (cutting flat elements with a width of up to 35-50 mm), galtovanny stone with rounded sharp edges (sawn and not sawn), “hump” and “noodles” with one processed side (this part the material is glued to the surface of the base), tile (geometrically regular or figured cladding). Among the most popular types of stone slabs for facing the plinth are the following: marble, shungite, granite, limestone, dolomite, sandstone, slate, lemezite, goldstone, siltstone, quartzite sandstone. When choosing, it is necessary to take into account operating conditions, climatic features, mechanical and other loads. Installation of natural stone on the base can be done with your own hands, which reduces the cost of work.But in some cases it is recommended to trust specialists, although each of the methods has its advantages and disadvantages: · an experienced craftsman will correctly calculate the amount of stone and mortar for laying it, determine what additional work may be required during the preparation of the base. But calling a master means the cost of his work,

· Self-installation allows you to exclude the cost of a specialist, but the time required for work to increase, as well as the consumption of materials.

Stages of facing the basement with stone

How to revet a socle with a natural stone? The finishing technology for all types of natural minerals is common, it differs only in details. Due to the large weight, the tile adheres to the cement mortar, it is recommended that the surface of the basement be waterproofed and stuccoed before, which improves the protection of the structure from moisture, cracking, damage during sudden temperature changes. But starting the cladding should be with the choice of material - granite or marble are distinguished by high cost, but they also provide a solid and expensive appearance. If the budget is somewhat limited, you can buy stone slabs of fragmented sandstone, for example, a terracotta-red hue, which after laying will be covered with a layer of varnish for protection. The advantages of this method are many - the thickness of the plates is optimal and constant within one plate, the surface is rough, smooth. In addition to the material, finishing the basement of the house with natural stone will require the presence of: · a building level, a plumb line, a metal rule, · a grinder for cutting slabs, · a stucco mixture (it is best to purchase ready-made dry, which is diluted with ordinary water), · a container for mixing mortars, · construction mixer (nozzle diameter is selected according to the mixes and volumes of mortars), · penetrating waterproofing, · polystyrene foam for basement insulation, · spatula (narrow and wide), · dowels - “umbrellas” for warm insulator "· plaster mesh" · primer, · cement mortar for cladding,

· Varnish for finishing.

Preparatory work before facing

To begin the solution of the question of the correct facing of the basement of the house with natural stone, it follows from the preparatory stage. To do this, the surface is inspected and, if necessary, leveled, cleaned of dust. Next, the base should be treated with penetrating waterproofing (various versions of such mixtures are commercially available), after drying, you can start warming. Thermal insulation is carried out using facade polystyrene foam, which is mounted on special dowels. After completing the work, the entire surface should be covered with a primer layer, it is best to take quartz acrylic mixtures for outdoor work.

After the primer dries, a galvanized steel mesh is attached to the surface, for which metal perforated plates are used. The mesh is screwed to the surface with flat head screws.

Base Cladding Technology

Installation of natural stone on the base begins after the primer dries. To do this, it is recommended to sketch before installation how the tile will be located on the surface if it has irregular shapes, or calculate the number in a row and position for rectangular tiles. For example, for laying torn natural stone, it is recommended to “dry” to collect a mosaic plot on an area of ​​2 sq.m. This will allow you to choose a picture and save a lot of time, optimize the consumption of natural stone tiles. In addition, it is necessary to sort out the material, perform cutting and machining. The stone is laid on the base with a cement mortar, it is better to knead it in small quantities. The bottom row is laid out first, for which the solution is applied with a metal spatula to the base surface and the back of the plate. The cladding stone is gently pressed against the surface, held this way for several seconds. Too thick a layer of the solution should not be taken, since such a lining will be of poor quality. If facing with noodle tiles or small elements, special glue can be used. This technology of laying the stone on the base is very simple, it allows you to finish a fairly large area with your own hands in the shortest time. It is necessary to advance from the bottom up, cutting and grinding is performed as the material is mounted.

After the cladding is finished, the surface should be washed carefully using a mini-wash with a high-pressure water jet, being careful not to damage the coating.

Grouting and finishing

The next step, how to coat the base with natural stone, is grouting with cement-sand mixture. To do this, you should definitely use protective gloves, the composition is literally rubbed by hand, completely filling the space between the individual elements. As a result, there should not be any cavities or gaps, and all surplus from the surface of the material is immediately removed. After that, the natural stone cladding is wiped and dried, covered with several layers of special varnish. In construction stores, you can purchase polyurethane varnishes designed for finishing stone and concrete surfaces.

Note: Varnishing is used only for sandstone or limestone, polished granite, marble and similar slabs are not varnished!

To start the finish coating for stone cladding should be from the corner from top to bottom, treating the entire surface with a wide brush. The result is a wet stone effect, the color of the tile becomes more saturated and deep, the texture is more pronounced. When using polished stone slabs, the finishing step will be to fill in the seams and use the necessary form of splitting, which allows you to give the basement design more attractiveness and solidity.

The technology of laying the stone on the base is distinguished by both complexity and simplicity at the same time. If you have certain skills, such a cladding can be done with your own hands, giving the exterior of the house more attractive, but in the absence of such experience, it is recommended to immediately contact specialists who will not only correctly calculate the stone tiles and consumables, but also perform work at the optimal cost.

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Types of natural stone for the basement

Home page »Publications» Laying natural stone on the base. How to make the basement facing with natural stone: step by step instructions. The article describes in detail the method of facing the cap with natural stone.

The foot of the building, which is located on the foundation, forms the transitional part of the building and is called the base. As a rule, it is 50-70 cm higher than the ground level, due to which it is a rather vulnerable part of the building.

The base accepts pressure from the house and protects it from the negative effects of soil moisture. At the same time, the good condition of the basement level forms the appearance of the structure and the safety of the finish. You can save such a significant fragment of the house with the help of facing.

Features of the use of natural stone in decoration

One of the most suitable materials for facing the foundation is a stone. The technology of laying natural stone on the base has its own characteristics:

    Stone of natural origin, thanks to its positive characteristics, has been used in the construction industry for quite some time. The scope of its application is quite wide - it is the decoration of the foundation, basement, verandas, building facades. Fireplaces, stairs, fences are also made from this natural material. Such varieties of stone as granite or marble, due to their high cost, are rarely used in building decoration. There are more accessible types of material - shale, dolomite, limestone, sandstone, quartzite. At the moment there is a special impregnation that allows you to protect limestone rocks from the negative effects, in particular from getting wet.

Choose material

The process of laying natural stone requires careful selection of material. To do this, adhere to such recommendations:

Initially, you need to determine the amount of facing stone, and also choose its thickness and color. To determine the quantity, you need to display the total surface area of ​​the base, add to this indicator 10% from above for fitting and trimming. Next, select a color.

To do this, it is advisable to focus on the color scheme of the building. For example, against the background of a brown roof, it will be quite profitable to look the cladding of a red hue. It should also be noted that the cost of the material will vary depending on the color scheme. The cheapest and most common is gray stone.

The desire to make the base material with a green, blue or red tint will cost a little more. The thickness of the product also forms the price. Thin material has the lowest cost with a layer of 1-1.5 cm. As the thickness of the stone increases, the price of a square meter will also increase.

Stone surface and methods of processing

In creating the appearance of the building, an important role is also played by the method of processing the stone - more precisely, the surface treatment of stone. By tradition, polished stone is used for facing private houses: in a small area, this solution looks very impressive. If the work is carried out with monumental buildings, it is best to carry out finishing work with stone with polished or glossy material. For finishing the basement elements, processing under the “wild” stone is often used - an imitation of the texture of the rock.

Typically, the foundations of large buildings are decorated with wild stone (sandstone, quartzite, granite) - especially in order to emphasize their solidity, monumentality. The combinations of bushard and wild stone also look quite elegant.

Stone surface and methods of processing

Wild stone and decoration of private houses

A great solution is to decorate a private home with a wild stone. To make sure of this, just remember a vivid example. On the territory of Saxony there is a house-attraction: it is located on the side of a steep hill that covers a beech forest. The cladding was planned by the designers in such a way that the observer has the impression that the house is growing directly from the rock. To implement this effect, the foundation was decorated with wild granite - as a result, the lining began to merge with the slope.

Above, the granite wide blocks of the foundation of this house are narrowing, smoothly turning into walls, which are faced with light limestone. The adjustment of the stone slabs was carried out so precisely that even in the immediate vicinity of the building it seems that the building was “carved” out of granite rock - the crevices in the masonry were also expertly masked to enhance the impression.

Wild stone and decoration of private houses

Where to start do-it-yourself stone finishes

Before undertaking the basic work related to the installation of decorative artificial stone, it is necessary to prepare the foundation. After that, finishing work with stone will be much easier, the final result will last an order of magnitude longer. If you need to perform finishing work on wood, first waterproofing material is installed. Further, a grid of stucco is attached to the wall - a stucco mortar is applied on it (layer thickness is not more than 10 mm).

If the facade tile, which is a rectangular element, is selected for decoration, the process can be simplified: it is better to order a material that is equipped with embedded parts (perforated tape, hooks, etc.), thanks to which you can fix the facade tile directly to the wooden base.

The walls of reinforced concrete or unpainted brick are plastered before the start of decoration - notches are applied to the whitewashed and painted surfaces, then they are leveled. For this task, plaster mortar is ideal.

Every builder should know that the plaster should dry out - only after that you can take on the stone cladding.

When the preparation of the base is completed and the plaster has dried, an artificial stone is laid out near the working surface - a person should have a clear idea of ​​which elements are selected, this facilitates the process of subsequent installation. To achieve the most natural look, the elements should be alternated in color, texture and size - it is better to take the cladding from different boxes.

Decorative mortar facade tiles are laid on a mortar of sand and cement, the mortar is prepared in a proportion of one to three (if possible, it is recommended to add latex to its composition). The best quality results are obtained when special tile adhesives are involved in the work (they are also called dry mixes).

Do it yourself with artificial stone

Usually, stone cladding begins with the installation of corner elements - it is important to alternate long and short sides. The adhesive is evenly distributed on the reverse side of the tile, the layer thickness should not exceed 15 mm. If a solution appeared on the front surface of the tile during lining, it should be removed - a dry cloth is suitable for this. It’s better not to delete such “mistakes” right away, and when the composition dries a little, it’s easier.

Never use solvents or wet rags to clean the facing stone - this is very important.

Facing stone laying methods

There are two popular ways by which the cladding is laid:

When a seamless cladding is made, the elements must be laid from the bottom up - the upper rows are pressed against the lower ones. If the method is chosen where the jointing is done, there should be a gap between the facade tiles - usually from 0.3 to 1 cm.

It should be understood that the jointing is a rather crucial stage in the process of facing with stone. The result of this work: complete sealing, that is, the possibility of moisture getting under the finish is completely eliminated. The appearance of the finish in this case will be more aesthetic. To fill the joints, a special bag is usually used; for jointing, a solution is usually used, which was used to grout the joints.

On the surface of the facade tiles, you do not need to grind the mixture that is used to fill the seams - this is very important.

Now let's talk about what to do when the stone finish is finished.

After laying is completed, the facing stone should be covered with a plastic film - it must be maintained when the tile adhesive or mortar gains strength (so that the adhesion of the base and facade tile is reliable). For any case, this time period is individual, a lot depends on the ambient temperature, on average, a week is quite enough, but sometimes an acceptable result is achieved per day. When the masonry dries completely, the entire surface should be treated with a vinyl hard brush - this is how salt films and dust are removed. Do not use wet sawdust to process facade tiles.

Fixing cladding elements

There are two main types of fixing stone elements to the plinth and walls - using mixtures and adhesive mastics. In this case, we are talking about the wet method. There is also a glueless method - in this case, different mounting systems are used. But there is an intermediate option - that is, the stone is mechanically fixed to the wall, but then the space (between the cladding and the wall) is poured with a solution. In this case, the plates are usually fixed not only to each other, but also to the wall.

If the glue method is used, it is recommended to opt for special mastics. They guarantee the elasticity of the connection, while neutralizing the effects of temperature extremes. The stone receives reliable protection against condensation, which usually occurs due to the circulation of water vapor (gets through the wall to the outside from the inside).

At the same time, to completely protect the building from the appearance of water vapor, one mastic is clearly not enough - it is important that the walls of the building also have internal vapor barrier. For a mixed type of fastening, this rule remains true.

When is it best to stone facing?

If you choose the "wet" method of fastening, for exterior finishing work is usually taken in May-October. If we talk about a different time, then practically the entire territory of the Russian Federation is dominated by low temperature, that is, the water that is contained in mixtures and solvents can freeze - solutions will lose some of their properties.

However, there is a universal solution, due to which the facade cladding will be performed competently. There is a method that neutralizes (or minimizes) all negative effects on the cladding. That is, builders can ensure that the facing stone has been in operation for as long as possible. Glueless fasteners - this option is used when hinged (ventilated) facades are arranged. Общие принципы здесь просты: посредством анкеров облицовочные элементы фиксируются в стене здания, между основанием и плитой остаётся зазор (3-25 см — в зависимости от того, каков размер плит, применяется ли теплоизоляция и проч.). Между плитами отделочного материала также оставляют зазоры — чтобы компенсировать температурные расширения.If desired, special elastic gaskets can be placed in these seams (sometimes they are also sealed with sealants). Recently, in addition to anchor fasteners, more often they use fasteners of facing plates on section gratings. There are other systems, for example, suspension tires, but we'll talk about this another time.

Choose glue

The solution for laying natural stone plays an important role in the design of the basement. When choosing a composition, several points should be taken into account:

Adhesive should be purchased only from manufacturers who have already proven themselves on the good side. So we will protect ourselves from unpleasant surprises related to the quality of the composition. The glue should be produced specifically for work aimed at laying natural stone.

The composition of such compositions contains fillers and additives, due to which the glue acquires the properties of perfect stiffness of setting. Also, when choosing an adhesive composition, the porosity of the stone should be taken into account. There are three types of material structure: porous stones, weakly porous and medium-porous. On the packaging of the adhesive must be marked, which will indicate the orientation of the composition on a particular type of stone.

Laying natural stone - method number 1

There are two ways in which you can lay natural stone on the base.

The first involves the use of a material with a flat surface, the thickness of which does not exceed 10 cm. Such stones can be chopped with a sledgehammer. As a rule, the facing process is performed in the following sequence:

Initially, it is necessary to make a trench around the foundation, with a width of 0.5 m and a depth of 15 cm. We pour gravel or gravel into the recess, ram it as tightly as possible and get to work. On a pre-leveled surface we lay a stone, starting from the bottom row of the basement. If the material has a different size and color, it is necessary to select suitable stones in advance.

This will help to save time in the process of work. If necessary, the stone can be cut with a grinder into the necessary fragments. However, it is recommended to do this only in extreme cases, since the natural form looks pretty good. According to this technology, the installation of stone resembles tile laying, because

have to deal with stitches. Since the sizes of the fragments may not coincide, the seams will help smooth out the difference and as a result you will get even styling. If the stones are fastened close to each other, then due to the uneven size they can protrude.

In addition, as a result of exposure to temperatures, the stone changes in size. The seams will help compensate for these changes, and then apply the adhesive to the back of the stone. To do this, use a special solution with frost-resistant characteristics. Next, with force, we press the stone fragment to the wall.

Thus, we first lay the bottom row, then rise higher and lay out the entire base. Do not leave large gaps between the stones, as this will adversely affect the appearance of the decorative cladding. The stones must be buried so that all the facing material is in the same plane. at the final stage, the seams should be poured with a solution and cleaned. In order to improve the appearance of the cladding, you can perform the deepening of the seams. This will add relief to the base and make the exterior of the building more attractive.

Finishing the base - method number 2

If the base is made of liquid concrete, natural stone, which is extracted from ponds, should be chosen as the material for decoration. The sequence of work is as follows:

The first step is to set the formwork. This is a pretty crucial moment.

If the straight lines are not maintained in the horizontal or vertical plane, the base will turn out uneven. After fixing the formwork, you can fix the cladding material. First, we lay the stones of the lower row, "planting" them on a cement mortar. Then we pour concrete to the lower tier of stones. It is important to monitor the consistency of the concrete composition.

Too liquid solution will pass through the cracks and flood the outer side of the cladding. After you need to wait a few hours. This time is necessary for the concrete to solidify a little. Then you can lay the next tier, which at the end should also be poured with concrete mortar. Within one day, you can lay the base approximately 0.5 m.

After a few days, remove the formwork. Excessive concrete should be removed from the stones, and then the joints should be repaired with mortar. If necessary, the color of the mortar can be made identical to the shade of the stone by adding color. After 4 hours, the joints should be expanded and the cladding surface cleaned again of any contaminants. At the final stage, the cladding surface should be coated with protective impregnation.

Protective compound

Laying a stone on a basement at a price depends on the availability of a protective coating. Its function is to prevent mold on the surface of the stone, various impurities or tarnishing. The processing process takes place in the following sequence:

Initially, a water-repellent impregnation or mastic is applied to the cladding. We process the surface with these compounds using a brush, roller, pulverizer or sponge. Protective compounds fill the pores of the material, as a result of which the risk of stone destruction is minimized. Then we apply wax.

This is an emulsion, which after drying can be matte or glossy. A layer of wax is necessary in order to mask minor chips and scratches on the surface of the stone. As well as these composition will prevent the emergence of new similar damage.

Laying of natural stone in the video is presented below:

The foot of the building, which is located on the foundation, forms the transitional part of the building and is called the base. As a rule, it is 50-70 cm higher than the ground level, due to which it is a rather vulnerable part of the building.

The base accepts pressure from the house and protects it from the negative effects of soil moisture. At the same time, the good condition of the basement level forms the appearance of the structure and the safety of the finish. You can save such a significant fragment of the house with the help of facing.

Advantages and disadvantages of the material

Natural stone has several advantages:

  1. Decorative component. In the construction market, there are many varieties that allow you to choose the best option for any occasion. The resulting surface always catches the eye.
  2. Durability. The use of natural stone makes it possible to get rid of the need to carry out finishing work in the future. The service life of the material is tens of years, the adhesive composition becomes unusable faster than the lining itself.
  3. Practicality. At the front of the house there is a reliable protection that does not need care.
Natural stone is so beautiful that practically does not need additional decor

Stone for facing has disadvantages:

  • Weight. The products are characterized by a significant mass, which puts a strain on the building. To avoid problems in the future, increased strength is pre-laid in the structure or reinforcement work is carried out.
  • High cost. Stone finish involves serious financial expenses. It is possible to reduce the construction estimate by using parts only on certain sections of the facade: basement, corners, columns.
  • The complexity of installation. Any violations of the technology lead to deformation of the coating.

On a note! Due to negative factors, stone cladding is extremely rare.

Limestone and sandstone

Limestone slabs have a matte polished or natural chipped surface, the shape of the parts is different. Facade decoration is carried out with a material having a high calcite content. In nature, pure white color and shade with yellowness are more common. The strength of the parts is not so high, due to moisture and temperature changes, the coating is destroyed.

Sandstone is similar to the previous variety, but surpasses it in reliability. There are several types of material: shell rock, pyzolite, oolite, lithographic.

Such products are parts with a multifaceted structure, unprocessed products are more common. The disadvantage of the material is the possibility of delamination.

Installation Nuances

Facing with natural stone has several features:

  • Raw parts are lighter than polished, so a more durable solution is used to lay the second.
  • Parts with a thickness of less than 1 cm and an area of ​​up to 0.4 m2 do not need additional fixing methods.
  • Elements must be stacked with a gap.
  • If the base is finished, it is better to use a dark material.

Taking these points into account makes it possible to obtain a high-quality result.

Styling technology

House decoration includes a number of stages:

  1. The choice of glue. The composition must have excellent characteristics.
  2. Foundation preparation. During the event, the surface becomes completely suitable for subsequent installation.
  3. Laying material. Facing of facades with natural stone is carried out at plus indicators of temperature and moderate humidity.
  4. Finishing work. Includes processes aimed at protecting the coating.

Each event is a continuation of the previous one.

Glue selection

A suitable adhesive should have the following parameters:

  • Good fixation. Due to the heavy weight of the parts, it is necessary to provide high adhesion strength. This indicator should not be less than 80–85 kg per 1 m2.
  • Linear expansion compensation. Facing the facade with stone can be carried out on various grounds, the thermal resolution of which differs from the performance of the finishing material.
  • Durability. Repairing a lined surface is a costly undertaking, so the glue must withstand moisture and temperature extremes, as well as at least 40 defrosting and freezing cycles.
  • Suitable drying time. If the parts require trimming and adjustment, then the fixing composition should not dry quickly. At the time of use, the mixture should be suitable for 1-2 hours.
You should not even try to lay natural minerals on a cement-sand mortar, for these purposes there are special types of glue

Important! When facing facades of houses with stone, it is better to abandon the use of cement compounds, polymer-based mixtures are suitable. When choosing, pay attention to the manufacturer and specifications, you can not work with a solution with an expired shelf life. If the price of the product is low, then it is better to refuse the purchase.

Foundation preparation

Preparation includes the following activities:

  1. Walls are cleaned of dust and dirt. If the surface is finished with a decorative coating, then it is removed.
  2. The condition of the facade is assessed. The wall to be coated must not be damaged. Slots and joints are coated with putty, defects are reinforced with reinforcing mesh to avoid cracking.
  3. The base is impregnated with a primer. The mixture is selected based on the purchased glue. It is better to apply at least two layers, waiting for each to dry.

For fixing the mesh, dowels and screws are used, which are screwed in increments of 15–20 cm. Sagging of the reinforcing layer is not allowed.

Finishing the facade with stone depends on the type of material: installation of parts of the correct shape and laying of raw products. In the first case, the algorithm of actions is as follows:

  1. Markup is in progress. To do this, using the level, the initial row is determined.
  2. Fastening starts from the corner. For convenience, the cord is pulled, it will provide evenness control.
  3. The facing material is prepared in advance. Glue according to the instructions is applied to the base and the wrong side of the part.
  4. The element is pressed to its place. If you want to create a clear line, then its position is checked by level and by cord.
  5. It is necessary to leave small seams, they will ensure the absence of defects with increasing and lowering the temperature outside.
  6. When the stone lining reaches the window openings, the marking is repeated. If trimming is required, then a grinder with diamond nozzles is used.
It’s quite difficult to lay natural material back to back, so the gaps are filled with special grout

It is more difficult to form a surface in the second case. Since fragments of different sizes are used for work, the elements are schematically laid out on a flat surface, and further adjustment is carried out on the spot. Finishing the facades with stone using this method allows you to get wide and uneven seams. The adhesive is applied to the part and to the base, after which the fragment is installed in place. The next element is first tried on, if necessary - it is cut or chipped.

On a note! To clad a coating in this way, you need imagination and designer ingenuity.

Masonry options

Facades made of stone are made by different masonry options:

  • Castle Which means "castle", so the result should resemble just such a structure. For work, a rectangular material with any texture is used. Facing the surface in this way is difficult, the technology consists in tightly stacking parts with alternating fragments of different sizes without matching vertical joints. It creates a feeling of controlled chaos.
  • Masonry from the die. This method involves the use of raw material. The result is a surface close to natural.
  • Shahriar. In this case, a rust stone is used, which has machined and beveled edges. This is an ordinary masonry, unusualness is created due to the irregular shape of the surface of the parts.

Natural stone houses are a real decoration if the work is done in compliance with the rules and nuances.

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