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How to care for goldfish in an aquarium

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Congratulations! You just won a goldfish at a fair. But how will you care for this tiny creature?

  1. 1 Give him / her a name. It can be creative, belong to someone outstanding or famous, or simply literally repeat the name of the animal
  2. 2 Remove the fish from the plastic bag. Packages alone do not provide it with enough oxygen. Go to your local pet store as soon as possible and buy a tank or fish tank.
  3. 3 Get the largest tank / aquarium you can buy at the moment. For example, if you can only purchase a 20 liter aquarium, buy it. Save money and then purchase a larger tank.
    • Some purchased aquariums come with so-called “starter kits”, that is, already complete with gravel, decorations, etc. If you get only the right aquarium (no starter kit), then you will need to buy some items to stimulate your fish. A great idea is multi-colored gravel, scenery, plants, etc.
  4. 4 After returning home, flush the aquarium, gravel, decorations, plants, etc. with water.d.
  5. 5 Now equip your aquarium, fill it with tap water, adding the required amount of air conditioning. Instructions for use are indicated directly on the bottle itself.
  6. 6 After the aquarium is fully equipped, place a bag of fish there so that it can get used to the temperature of the aquarium water without experiencing shock.
  7. 7 After watching the fish for a few minutes, take the net and rinse it with water. Carefully remove your fish from the bag and place it in a new aquarium.
  • Do not forget to feed your fish daily. Do not overfeed her while feeding. This can lead to flatulence (bloating).
  • Always wash your hands before and after feeding the fish. This will prevent diseases, both for you and your goldfish.
  • As soon as you can afford it, think about buying a few fish. The fish alone are themselves, and they will play with other fish!
  • As a rule, goldfish feel better if there is an aerator in the aquarium.
  • Just in case, always keep the medicine on hand.

CONTENT

Goldfish maintenance and care at home requires a simple. It is enough to provide it with a spacious aquarium, which will be correctly equipped with equipment (filter, aerator, thermometer, heating pad) and a decor that will help this species to carry out a natural instinct, that is, rummage and hide, without harming health.

Goldfish is a freshwater inhabitant of the crucian genus, the most common inhabitant of aquariums. Today, glass containers inhabit numerous varieties of these fish, among which the most popular are ordinary goldfish, butterfly, fan-tail, veil-tail, pearl, comet, lion head, celestial eye, ranch, telescope.

Even the ancient Chinese appreciated the beauty of these fish and populated them with artificial ponds. The ancient Romans were the first to decorate their homes with aquariums. So the goldfish settled in people's homes.

Currently, fans of these aquarium fish know that it is not difficult to care for them if you follow a few simple rules: settle the fish in a spacious aquarium, equip it with powerful filtration and aeration systems, and change water as often as possible.

How to choose the right aquarium for a goldfish

When considering the issue of "Goldfish: maintenance and care", the first relevant point is the right choice of an aquarium. Selecting a container for a goldfish is not such a simple task as it seems at first glance. Many people do not even think about the criteria by which suitable housing for fish is determined. Therefore, before buying your favorite aquarium, you need to carefully study the information about the type of fish that populate it.

You can often see that a goldfish exists (otherwise it simply cannot be called) in a small round aquarium without bedding and plants. Of course, having such a bright appearance, this aquatic beauty with aesthetic impulses should stand out from the background of her home. And a small aquarium perfectly emphasizes its beauty. But how wrong are those who inhabit a poor freshwater creature in a small container! For such mistakes of the owner, a fish of this species can be paid not only with health, but also with life.

Fish of this species grow rapidly. Are there cases where some of them reached sizes 30? 35 cm. This is due to the fact that the nominal size of these aquatic inhabitants is 6? 12 cm

The optimal proportion of the capacity for the goldfish is 60 cm? per 1 cm of body length of an individual. If the proportions of the glass house are 70x40x40 cm, then 2 fish can live in it, if each body is up to 20 cm long.

How to determine the volume of water for an aquarium

How to care for a goldfish to make her comfortable? First of all, you need to correctly determine the volume of water for one inhabitant of the aquarium.

If there is less water, the fish will have nowhere to swim.

The volume of water in a tank designed to contain a large number of goldfish is determined depending on the number of inhabitants of the aquarium.

By increasing the size of the glass "house" you can slightly increase the density of landing. 100 l of water can contain 2 individuals (even 3 can be, but then the organization of powerful filtration, frequent replacement of water is required). Such a recommendation is appropriate if the body length of a fish without a caudal fin does not exceed 5? 7 cm

How to care for a goldfish

Goldfish are a species of freshwater crucian carp. They are very popular among lovers of aquarium fish. However, not all of those who start a goldfish in their home take care of it properly, although it is not difficult to do so.

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There is a wide variety of breeds related to the type of goldfish, for example, Ryukin, Lionhead, Vualehvost, etc. Some of these fish reach 25-30 cm in length, so if you decide to get these fish in yourselves, be prepared for the fact that you need a rather large aquarium with a capacity of 100 to 200 liters. Such an aquarium size is necessary for the fish to live as long as possible. Small aquariums quickly accumulate ammonia, which causes fish to die.
When choosing soil for an aquarium, remember that goldfish often dig into it in search of food, this can cause pieces of stones to get into their mouths. If you are holding these fish, it is advisable to fill the aquarium with large stones or very fine sand. Neither one nor the other will bring harm to the fish. Wherever you take the soil, you need to thoroughly rinse it before sending it to the aquarium. This also applies to special soil, which can be purchased in specialized stores.
Be sure to place real aquatic plants in the aquarium. They will help to effectively fight ammonia and other harmful substances that accumulate in it over time. Also ensure that there is sufficient light from the lamps. Goldfish on average need about 12 hours of light per day.
To keep gold fish, the aquarium must be equipped with a water filter. It will help keep the water in maximum purity and prevent fish diseases from harmful impurities, for example, from rotten food particles.

Habitat care

Regularly check the water for ammonia; its level should always be at zero. In addition, the content of goldfish imposes certain restrictions on the ph level of water; make sure that this indicator is in the range from 6 to 8.
Try to regularly clean the aquarium from harmful particles that are not removed by the filter, do this at least once a week. If you do not drain the water to replace it, try not to remove the fish from the aquarium; use a vacuum pump to clean it. If you change the water, carry the fish with a container, do not use a net for this.
Always prepare the water for the aquarium properly, use special conditioners for the aquarium for this, they help bring the water to the right state. Never use clean drinking water, it will lack many of the nutrients needed by these fish.

Feeding and Disease

Try to feed the goldfish twice a day at the same time. Please also note that these fish may die from overeating, so give them small amounts of food. Be sure to clean the aquarium of food debris immediately after feeding.
Carefully take care of the state of the water in which the fish lives. The harmful substances that accumulate in it can cause many diseases. Most often, fish are infected with various parasites that appear on the surface of the body in the form of white and red spots. If you find this, immediately isolate the fish in a separate container and keep it there until complete recovery.

How to care for goldfish

Chinese and Japanese breeders have bred several well-known species of goldfish. Some people think that caring for them is very easy, due to their great popularity. Sometimes a person can simply be presented with a goldfish for some merit or simply as an innocent gift, which will inevitably prompt a person to think about how to care for goldfish so that they can live well in his aquarium.

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It is worth saying that in cases where the fish is not given proper care, it dies rather quickly. Sometimes she lives only three to four days. To ensure proper care for the goldfish, you must always consider what kind of aquarium you have, and also know what you need to do with the water before you run the fish into it. It is also important to decide what to feed the animal. If we talk about choosing the right aquarium, it is worth saying that in small aquariums, these fish die. The larger the fish itself or the greater their number, the greater should be the volume of the glass dwelling. Future owners should also know that water should be enriched with oxygen. An important point is the selection of the “contents” of the aquarium. For example, you need to put gravel on the bottom, since bacteria live on it that absorb ammonia and its level in water decreases. As for the temperature that must be maintained in order to contain a goldfish, it should not be less than or more than 21 degrees.

In order to contain one goldfish you will need:

Aquarium filter, with the ability to pump air - 1 pc.

Aquarium Thermometer

Medium Gravel
Aquarium snails
Somiki - 2 individuals
Special food for goldfish
Goldfish Literature
1. Install the aquarium in a suitable place in your home or apartment.
2. Place medium sized gravel at the bottom of the aquarium.
3. Install a filter that pumps air.
4. Install a special thermometer.
5. Pour clean water into the aquarium.
6. Run snails and catfish into the aquarium.
7. Wait a few days or even a week.
8. Make sure that the temperature in the aquarium is 21 degrees.
9. Launch a goldfish.
10. Check how much the fish eats food at a time.
11. Never overfeed a goldfish!
12. Never use small aquariums to keep a goldfish.

How to keep goldfish

Aquarium fish - telescopes

The telescope is a kind of goldfish that is not found in the wild. As you know, goldfish appeared as a result of selection of wild carp. According to reliable data, the telescope fish was bred in the XVII century in China, from which it came to Japan. The most visible part of the animal’s body is the large, bulging eyes located on the sides of the head. Due to the unusual shape of the eyes, the fish got its name. Unfortunately, these eyes themselves are very vulnerable in the aquarium, they can be damaged by random objects. For this reason, keeping a pet requires maximum care. Caring for a fish imposes some restrictions and rules that help protect its health.

Appearance

In a fish, the telescope has an oval body shape that is identical with other representatives of the veiltail. The symmetry of the body is short and wide. The head is large with bulging eyes, lush fins.

Modern breeders sell fish of telescopes of various colors and shapes - with short or long fins, red and white colors, and, of course, black. Black telescopes change their color with age.


The size of the telescopes varies on average from 15 to 20 cm within the aquarium. They live in captivity for a long time, about 15 years. Fish living in artificial ponds can live for 20 years.

Content Features

Similarly to their relatives, goldfish, telescopes coexist in cool water, but it is not recommended to breed them to beginners in aquariums. The point is in vulnerable eyes, which besides a large eyeball, see almost nothing. Its content is not so simple: you have to look for special food, plants and soil that would not damage the delicate body of the pet.

On the other hand, caring for telescopes is not difficult if you are extremely careful with them. Like other types of goldfish, they are tolerant to changes in the aquatic environment, can live both in a garden pond and in a glass aquarium. Compatibility is possible with slow, peaceful fish that will not take their food. It is recommended to settle in spacious aquariums at the rate of 50 liters per 1 fish and more than 150 liters for several individuals. The tank should be safe, without a lot of snags, sharp objects. Medium-sized rounded pebbles or coarse sand are used as soil - telescopes love to dig through the soil. It is important that they do not swallow large parts. Soft plants nibble, hard-leaved plants are a good choice for their "house".

Watch a video revealing the features of the contents of the fish telescope.

A powerful external filter should be installed in the aquarium, which will remove numerous wastes after pets. It is important to pass the current through the flute, as you know, telescopes swim poorly. Choose wide containers with a large surface area - through it there is a constant gas exchange.

Do not forget about updating 1/5 of the water once a week. Permissible parameters of water: temperature 20-23 degrees Celsius, hardness - 5-19o, acidity - 6.0-8.0 pH. Not particularly sensitive to the conditions of detention, however, quality care for them involves clean water and the absence of sharp surfaces.


What to feed?

Aquarium telescopes are unpretentious in feeding: they feed on live, frozen and artificial feeds. You can give granules, artemia, bloodworms, tubule, daphnia. Due to poor eyesight, they do not always notice food without eating enough. When feeding artificial food to fish, maximum saturation can be ensured, since they find food for a long time at the bottom of the tank. And such food slowly breaks up and does not rot.

With whom can they live in captivity?

Telescopes can be called friendly fish that behave appropriately towards their neighbors. Compatibility is proved with related species of fish: veil-tail, shubunkinami, oranda, goldfish. Such fish are cold-loving, not aggressive, do not leave a lot of waste.

Negative compatibility with Sumatran barbs, thorns, denisoni barbs, tetragonopterus. These fish can intimidate them, break off the fins.

Admire the bright telescopes.

Breeding

Propagation of telescopes is possible in an artificial reservoir in the springtime, when the water warms. As with the breeding of goldfish, the female and male telescope are seated in separate aquariums for two weeks, giving live and artificial food. Before settling in the spawning, they arrange a fasting day. Spawning occurs in fresh and softer water with a temperature of 23-25 ​​degrees.


The required volume of spawning is 50 liters, a separator grid and several hard-leaved plants are placed there. Usually one female and 2-3 males spawn. The female lays many eggs - more than 2000. Incubation lasts 3-4 days. 5 days after spawning, larvae hatch, which will swim in a few days if the water temperature is from 21 to 26 degrees Celsius. The fry are weak and helpless, barely noticeable. Starting feed is live dust. Later you can give artemia and rotifers. Care of fry requires constant monitoring in a spawning aquarium - in order to prevent cannibalism between brothers, large fry should be planted and settled separately from smaller ones.

How to care for goldfish?

Alexey*

Goldfish, like other captive fish and plants, require careful and loving care. But love alone is not enough. A certain amount of knowledge and experience is required.
Goldfish is one of the most common and famous aquarium fish.

Nowadays, it can be seen in any pet store. But in pre-revolutionary Russia, in the 70-80s of the XIX century, only rich people could boast of an aquarium or a pool with goldfish.
Жители средневековой Европы знали этих рыб лишь по рисункам на вазах, веерах и шкатулках, привозимых купцами с Востока по Великому шелковому пути. It was believed that the images of bright, big-eyed and magnificent-tailed creatures are the same figment of the artist’s imagination as the images of dragons. The first of the Europeans to tell his fellow citizens at the end of the 13th century about a fancy fish was the famous Venetian traveler Marco Polo.
Many centuries passed before the reservoirs of goldfish ceased to be a kind of "state secret", "secret objects" hidden from the eyes of foreigners behind the high walls of Chinese and Japanese palaces. Alfred Brem wrote that the first goldfish were brought to Europe in 1611. According to other sources, this happened later. Goldfish came to Russia as an outlandish gift to the father of Peter I - Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov, a great lover of animals and plants. Due to improper maintenance, the fish soon died. It was believed, for example, that they feed on water.
In those days, goldfish were surrounded by a halo of legends ascribing to these creatures a heavenly, supernatural beginning. However, the true story of the origin of the goldfish is no less interesting. Having carefully studied ancient literature, examined the structure of fish and conducted experiments, ichthyologists found that the ancestor of the aquarium beauty is the Chinese subspecies of silver crucian carp, common in small, well-sun-heated waters of China, Korea and Japan. Fishermen of our country are well acquainted with another subspecies of silver crucian carp living in the territory from the Amur River basin to the western border of Russia. These fish should not be confused with goldfish (it is ordinary, or broad-bodied), which is not connected with the goldfish by any kindred ties. .
Important conditions for proper maintenance ...
Goldfish are best kept separately from other types of fish, especially small and fast ones, which can intercept most of the food, and pugnacious ones such as macro pods, cichlomas and barbs, which can damage the large eyes and fins of their clumsy, harmless neighbors. Small vessels containing a bucket of water (10-12 liters) are quite suitable for a pair of two-three-centimeter fry. However, the larger the aquarium, the better the fish feel and the easier it is to take care of them. If in a four-bucket aquarium veil tails or telescopes grow up to 10-12 centimeters in length and can multiply, then in a bucket aquarium they will forever remain dwarfs. ..
Goldfish are harmful to be in a round aquarium: they have little room for swimming, not enough oxygen for breathing, and from the abnormal refraction of light by a convex glass, they can go blind. It is difficult to place a filter and an atomizer in a round aquarium without spoiling the decorative appearance of the vessel. The fish feel much better and are less sick in a spacious rectangular aquarium, which is easy to decorate with smooth stones and aquatic plants. ..
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Paul

Goldfish (Carassius auratus) was one of the first domesticated fish and to this day remains one of the most popular for keeping in aquariums and water gardens. A relatively small representative of the cyprinid family, the goldfish is a domesticated version of the goldfish that was brought to Europe in the seventeenth century as a result of the work of Chinese breeders. The maximum size of a goldfish is 59 cm, the maximum weight is 4.5 kg. The record of life expectancy of a goldfish is 49 years, although it usually lives up to 20 years, and in conditions of aquarium maintenance from six to eight years.
During the reign of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, it was very popular to grow carp in ponds. As a result of mutations, a golden carp appeared, since this is a rare species, it soon became more desirable than silver species. The ancestors of the goldfish were not kept in containers, but in ponds. But since the beginning of the reign of the Sang Dynasty, people outside the royal family were forbidden to grow goldfish. The presence of other colors of the goldfish was discovered only in 1276, the first veiltail fish appeared during the reign of the Ming Dynasty, and in 1502 the goldfish arrived in Japan. In 1611, the fish travels through Portugal to Europe, and in 1850 it enters America.
Goldfish are usually classified as cold-water; they can live in an unheated aquarium. Like all cyprinids, a goldfish produces a large amount of waste. She has a small digestive tract and cannot digest excess carbohydrates. If you do not clean the aquarium of such waste in time, this can lead to premature death of the fish. The popular image of a goldfish in a small spherical aquarium is an advertising hoax. A small aquarium can cause a lack of oxygen and ammonium poisoning, so it was even banned in some countries by official means.
A goldfish is considered a cold-water type of fish, but this does not mean that it easily tolerates temperature extremes. Temperatures above 25 ° C can be dangerous for goldfish. The notoriety of goldfish, such as those that do not live long, arose due to insufficiently good care of them. Goldfish are omnivorous, but prefer red worms and green leafy vegetables. It’s nice to add shrimp to the menu. Goldfish are terrible gluttons, in order to avoid obesity and infertility they need to be fed no more than once a day.
Goldfish quickly get used to people. After a few weeks, they cease to perceive a person as a danger and then they can be hand-fed. For some time from the moment of landing in the aquarium, goldfish can be aggressive towards each other, but then they get used to it and different species even acquire similar behavioral reactions. Goldfish can become sexually mature only with proper care.
The behavioral reactions of a goldfish and a crucian carp are very similar: after all, an ancestor. In addition to small pranks in the aquarium (digging up plants), goldfish repeat the behavior of crucians in courtship, scaring away enemies and so on. In fact, unlike the same guppies, a goldfish is a harmless creature in everything that does not concern food. More active species, such as comets, are so voracious that they can leave all other fish in the aquarium without food.
According to the Chinese classification, there are about a dozen species of goldfish, which, in turn, are subordinate to four groups, here they are:
- Dragon's eye: goldfish with bulging eyes, such as a telescope, water eyes or stargazer,
- Egg-shaped: fish with a rounded body, deprived of a dorsal fin, such as a lion head. A telescope without a dorsal fin is also egg-shaped.

Irina Kalugina

just feed her 2 times a little, consider they are gluttons and mine, for example, almost always asks to eat, but once she got so fed up that she almost burst so don’t overfeed the main advice and change the water every 1-2 weeks

Seryoga

Yes nefiga care for them - the less attention, the livelier they are. So enjoy watching from the couch.
According to the content, you can google - a lot of things.
Common to all - the larger the aquarium, the more difficult it is to unbalance it - the better the fish are there.
Do not overfeed the fish, otherwise they will die of obesity.
do not overheat the water - they will be dull
large fins - keep with peaceful fish
large - do not plant a trifle - they praise
Whole water should only be changed in case of an epidemic, and so should be replaced with 0.25 or 0.33 parts ...
In general, everything is quite simple, even if it seems complicated :)

I want a goldfish in a small round aquarium, how much will it cost? How to care?

palette

True, the goldfish will be crowded. maybe a cock is better? they are very beautiful and do not require much water, as they breathe atmospheric air. You can also put there:
1 lalius or 1 gourami or 1 macropod. just not all together :)

Harmful Victoria

decently, I had goldfish, but everyone died ((
By the way, a round aquarium is harmful to fish, although it’s very cool)
constant care is needed - change water, filters, include oxygen, buy plants, feed. small, small, and care like an elephant)))

Alexander Khanin

pleasure is not very expensive. about 1500-2000r. In this amount you buy an aquarium + a goldfish + compressor and a water filter / heater. just the soil and a few branches for beauty should meet))) care just feed ... monitor the temperature of the water. and clean the aquarium ... all procedures are measured how to do it more precisely, you can find out from a special booklet usually at the ZOO store such are sold ... and so called Goldfish care)))

DDD

1000-1500 rubles Goldfish are best kept separately from other types of fish, especially small and fast, which can intercept most of the feed, and pugnacious, such as macro pods, cichlazomas and barbs, which can damage the large eyes and fins of their clumsy, harmless neighbors . Small vessels containing a bucket of water (10-12 liters) are quite suitable for a pair of two-three-centimeter fry. However, the larger the aquarium, the better the fish feel and the easier it is to take care of them. If in a four-bucket aquarium veil tails or telescopes grow up to 10-12 centimeters in length and can multiply, then in a bucket aquarium they will forever remain dwarfs.
Goldfish are harmful to be in a round aquarium: they have little room for swimming, not enough oxygen for breathing, and from the abnormal refraction of light by a convex glass, they can go blind. It is difficult to place a filter and an atomizer in a round aquarium without spoiling the decorative appearance of the vessel. The fish feel much better and are less sick in a spacious rectangular aquarium, which is easy to decorate with smooth stones and aquatic plants.
Good aeration (air purging) and water filtration are important conditions for the proper maintenance of goldfish. 1/3 of the total volume of water should be changed weekly to fresh, regardless of the operation of the aerator (microcompressor) and filter. In an aquarium with a volume of 40-50 liters (with a water layer of not more than 30 centimeters), 6-8 fish can be kept with continuous blowing of water with air. Since the main saturation of water with oxygen occurs through its surface, it is advisable to calculate the surface area per each fish. A decimeter of body length for short-bodied rocks requires at least two square decimeters of the water surface, and for long-bodied rocks - at least one and a half square decimeters. If there is no purge, but the water is partially replaced daily with fresh water, this rate should be doubled, and if the water does not change at all, triple it. The norm relative to the surface of the water should be considered as indicative, since it depends on the number of plants, water temperature, etc.
If the fish swim, raising their mouths to the surface, trying to capture the air, then the water is not saturated enough with oxygen. Increase purge or change some of the water to fresh.
A partial change of water in the aquarium is best done by settling in a separate bowl with tap water for a day. With a large windproof aquarium and a small number of fish (if each accounts for about 15 liters), it is recommended to replace about 1/10 of the volume with water taken directly from the water supply daily.
The cooler the water, the more oxygen can be dissolved in it. Therefore, in hot weather, fish may experience oxygen starvation. The best water temperature for them is 15-20 ° C. Plants play a large role in supplying oxygen to water in an aquarium without purging. However, the surface of their leaves is contaminated by particles of garbage suspended in the water, and delicate plants are simply eaten by goldfish. Plants with hard leaves and a good root system are suitable for the aquarium: Wallisneria, Japanese Sagittaria, Anubias - or the most hardy, for example, Elodea. As a soil for plants, it is better to use small (with a pea) gravel or pebbles, which are almost not scattered by fish.
It is better to put an aquarium with goldfish near a sunny window: without sufficient lighting, the bright color of the fish dims, the plants wither. Natural lighting can be replaced by electric.
Feeding
You need to feed goldfish with a variety of foods. Plants should also be included in the diet: finely chopped lettuce, ricchia, wolfia, duckweed. The best food is bloodworm, earthworm (too large specimens are cut into pieces), daphnia. Live food can be replaced with scraped or minced meat minced in half with white bread in small balls. It is permissible to feed the fish cool boiled, crumbly, washed in fresh water porridge: buckwheat, oat, millet

Elena Grigoryeva

The smaller the aquarium, the more fuss with it, and the round aquarium is generally a solid hemorrhoids. After such a headache for 20 years, I did not dare to get an aqua. Now I have 180 liters., Rectangular, always clean, always pleasing to the eye.

A bit of history

Residents of medieval Europe knew these fishes only from drawings on vases, fans and caskets brought by merchants from the East along the Great Silk Road. It was believed that the images of bright, big-eyed and magnificent-tailed creatures are the same figment of the artist’s imagination as the images of dragons. The first of the Europeans to tell his fellow citizens at the end of the 13th century about a fancy fish was the famous Venetian traveler Marco Polo.

Many centuries passed before the reservoirs of goldfish ceased to be a kind of "state secret", "secret objects" hidden from the eyes of foreigners behind the high walls of Chinese and Japanese palaces. Alfred Brem wrote that the first goldfish were brought to Europe in 1611. According to other sources, this happened later. Goldfish came to Russia as an outlandish gift to the father of Peter I - Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov, a great lover of animals and plants. Due to improper maintenance, the fish soon died. It was believed, for example, that they feed on water.

In those days, goldfish were surrounded by a halo of legends ascribing to these creatures a heavenly, supernatural beginning. However, the true story of the origin of the goldfish is no less interesting. Having carefully studied ancient literature, examined the structure of fish and conducted experiments, ichthyologists found that the ancestor of the aquarium beauty is the Chinese subspecies of silver crucian, common in small, well-sun-heated bodies of water in China, Korea and Japan. Fishermen of our country are well acquainted with another subspecies of silver crucian carp living in the territory from the Amur River basin to the western border of Russia. These fish should not be confused with goldfish (it is ordinary, or broad-bodied), which is not connected with the goldfish by any kindred ties.

From time to time, yellow and orange-red mutants appear in the offspring of silver-gray Chinese crucian carp. Such an individual is an ordinary goldfish (with an elongated body and the normal structure of the fins). It differs from crucian carp only in congenital insufficiency of dark pigment in the integument of the body. Goldfish caught in the rivers of the southern provinces of China, people were placed in the pools and tried in every possible way to breed. Mention of such amazing pets is found in Chinese manuscripts of 618-960 AD. In the era of the early Middle Ages, people learned to get offspring from unusually painted crucians. Apparently, it was the Korean fish breeders who first used the variability of crucian carp in body color and shape and began to make the first attempts to select goldfish. The goldfish reached its true development in many breeds and varieties in China, which is considered to be its homeland.

Species and color variations

Selecting among fish individuals with all kinds of deformities in the structure of the body, eyes, and fins, Korean, Chinese, and Japanese breeders made it possible to turn these deviations into permanent signs of breeds. Breeding each breed of goldfish required many years of patient work of several generations. The result of targeted artificial selection was a change in the color and shape of the body of the fish and the appearance of fantastic creatures, looking at which it is hard to believe that they came from ordinary crucian carp.

Today, there are more than one hundred and twenty color variations and breeds of a goldfish. In Chinese fish farms there are breeds still unknown in Europe. The most popular among Russian amateurs are short-bodied goldfish: veil-tail, telescope, oranda, lion head, long-bodied comet, shubunkin and ordinary goldfish are less common.

The goldfish in the form of fins and body is very similar to crucian carp, but colored differently. Most often there is a golden and reddish-orange variation, often two-tone (gold with black or silver-white spots) and chintz (red-white-black). The comet has a more graceful body than an ordinary goldfish and an elongated (in the best specimens - in the form of two ribbons) tail fin. Shubunkin has a variegated, very diverse color and transparent scales, which makes it seem scaleless. Usually it is chintz. Fishes with dark red, black, brown and yellow spots scattered on a bluish background are the rarest. Плавники шубункина длиннее плавников золотой рыбки. У всех этих пород хвостовой и анальный плавники одинарные, а у похожего на обычную золотую рыбку веерохвоста они двойные. Веерохвост считается предком короткотелых пород золотой рыбки.

Вуалехвост и телескоп — рыбы с коротким яйцевидным туловищем и сильно удлиненными плавниками. Хвостовой плавник у них раздвоен и свисает наподобие вуали. Its length often exceeds the length of the body. The eyes of the telescopes are enlarged, they look like balls or cylinders. The shorter the body of the veiltail and the telescope and the larger their fins, the more valuable the fish is for the aquarist. Oranda is a type of veiltail, characterized by skin growths on the head and gill covers. For the lion head, in addition to strongly developed growths, short fins and the complete absence of the dorsal fin are also characteristic.

A short body with a swollen belly and a softly falling double long tail do not allow veil tails and orandas to swim quickly and control their movements well. Obtained by artificial selection, the body shape led to the tightness and curvature of the internal organs of fish. Veil-tails and similar breeds are more susceptible to various diseases, and their lifespan is much shorter than representatives of long-bodied breeds.

In aquariums, there are crossbreeds and transitional forms between all the described breeds, for example, a single tail tail veil or a fan tail with Shubunkin coloring. All of them can serve as decoration of an aquarium, but such fish cannot be used in breeding of this or that breed. Wrong selection of producers for reproduction leads to the fact that the "classical" veil tails, comets and fur coats become a real rarity.

Grateful pupils

A large aquarium with goldfish of different breeds looks very elegant and serves as a real decoration of the room. Watching these original creations is never boring. Some aquarists "do not respect" goldfish for their gluttony and large size, for their unnaturally artsy appearance and for the typically carapace habit of delving into the sand of the aquarium, leading to cloudy water and damage to plants. At the same time, goldfish are grateful pupils who respond well to people caring for them. They become manual, take food from the fingers of the owner, allow themselves to be stroked and even swim in the palm of your hand. All this makes goldfish ideal pets for children who need more than simple observation and care for animals.

Important conditions for proper maintenance

Goldfish are best kept separately from other types of fish, especially small and fast ones, which can intercept most of the food, and pugnacious ones such as macro pods, cichlomas and barbs, which can damage the large eyes and fins of their clumsy, harmless neighbors. Small vessels containing a bucket of water (10-12 liters) are quite suitable for a pair of two-three-centimeter fry. However, the larger the aquarium, the better the fish feel and the easier it is to take care of them. If in a four-bucket aquarium veil tails or telescopes grow up to 10-12 centimeters in length and can multiply, then in a bucket aquarium they will forever remain dwarfs.

Goldfish are harmful to be in a round aquarium: they have little room for swimming, not enough oxygen for breathing, and from the abnormal refraction of light by a convex glass, they can go blind. It is difficult to place a filter and an atomizer in a round aquarium without spoiling the decorative appearance of the vessel. The fish feel much better and are less sick in a spacious rectangular aquarium, which is easy to decorate with smooth stones and aquatic plants.

Good aeration (air purging) and water filtration are important conditions for the proper maintenance of goldfish. 1/3 of the total volume of water should be changed weekly to fresh, regardless of the operation of the aerator (microcompressor) and filter. In an aquarium with a volume of 40-50 liters (with a water layer of not more than 30 centimeters), 6-8 fish can be kept with continuous blowing of water with air. Since the main saturation of water with oxygen occurs through its surface, it is advisable to calculate the surface area per each fish. A decimeter of body length for short-bodied rocks requires at least two square decimeters of the water surface, and for long-bodied rocks - at least one and a half square decimeters. If there is no purge, but the water is partially replaced daily with fresh water, this rate should be doubled, and if the water does not change at all, triple it. The norm relative to the surface of the water should be considered as indicative, since it depends on the number of plants, water temperature, etc.

If the fish swim, raising their mouths to the surface, trying to capture the air, then the water is not saturated enough with oxygen. Increase purge or change some of the water to fresh.

A partial change of water in the aquarium is best done by settling in a separate bowl with tap water for a day. With a large windproof aquarium and a small number of fish (if each accounts for about 15 liters), it is recommended to replace about 1/10 of the volume with water taken directly from the water supply daily.

The cooler the water, the more oxygen can be dissolved in it. Therefore, in hot weather, fish may experience oxygen starvation. The best water temperature for them is 15-20 ° C. Plants play a large role in supplying oxygen to water in an aquarium without purging. However, the surface of their leaves is contaminated by particles of garbage suspended in the water, and delicate plants are simply eaten by goldfish. Plants with hard leaves and a good root system are suitable for the aquarium: Wallisneria, Japanese Sagittaria, Anubias - or the most hardy, for example, Elodea. As a soil for plants, it is better to use small (with a pea) gravel or pebbles, which are almost not scattered by fish.

It is better to put an aquarium with goldfish near a sunny window: without sufficient lighting, the bright color of the fish dims, the plants wither. Natural lighting can be replaced by electric.

You need to feed goldfish with a variety of foods. Plants should also be included in the diet: finely chopped lettuce, ricchia, wolfia, duckweed. The best food is bloodworm, earthworm (too large specimens are cut into pieces), daphnia. Live food can be replaced with scraped or minced meat minced in half with white bread in small balls. It is permissible to feed the fish cool boiled, crumbly, washed in fresh water porridge: buckwheat, oat, millet. In pet stores imported fodder for fish is sold, in particular for gold. When feeding fish with non-living food, water quickly deteriorates, so it can not be kept in the aquarium for a long time. After 10-15 minutes, uneaten residues must be removed. It is undesirable for a live bloodworm to dig into the ground; for this feed, you can put a small bowl on the bottom of the aquarium. At a temperature of 15 ° C, fish should be fed once a day, at higher (up to 24 ° C) - in the morning and in the evening, at a lower (10-12 ° C) - every other day.

How to distinguish a sick fish from a healthy one

When purchasing goldfish, it is important to pay attention to their appearance. Damage to fins and eyes, rash and cloudy plaque on the scales, signs of exhaustion are unacceptable. An important feature of the appearance of a healthy fish is a raised (and not pressed to the back) dorsal fin. Fish should actively swim and eagerly rush for food. Males can be distinguished from females only during the mating season. In a mature male, small white warts appear on the gill covers, sometimes the first ray of the pectoral fin is thickened and covered with white tubercles.

Long-bodied breeds of goldfish in good conditions can live 20-35 years, and short-bodied - up to 15 years.

Water aeration

You can turn on the aerator on the filter, but this may not be enough. It is preferable to have a compressor as an additional source of supplied air. On sale there are conventional compressors, the operation of which is accompanied by a characteristic noise, and silent. The latter are more expensive, but ideal for aquariums located in the bedrooms. The choice always remains with the buyer.

If living plants in large quantities grow in a glass fish "house", excellent lighting and carbon dioxide supply are set up, then the aerator needs to be turned on only at night. A prerequisite for such actions will be oxygen bubbles secreted by the vegetation. They can completely cover the leaves of plants.

24 hour water filtration

Rule number 5. Enhanced filtration is a prerequisite for keeping goldfish. These beauties are filthy: constantly undermining the soil, they raise turbidity. Their excrement has the consistency of mucus, which is why they very pollute the litter, which tends to rot. Therefore, a filter for containers with such sloppiness is simply necessary.

The best option would be a filter with a capacity of at least 3-4 aquarium volumes per hour. It is better to purchase an external canister filter. But if this is not possible, and the volume of the glass container is more than 100? 120 l, then you can use the internal filter. It should be multi-section with a compartment for ceramic filler. Water filtration should occur around the clock.

The internal filter should be washed frequently, the best option - with every change of water. You can do this directly in aquarium water. The external filter is cleaned and washed much less frequently.

Even if continuous enhanced filtration is carried out, water change must be carried out every week. In this case, it is necessary to replace from a quarter to a third of the volume of the tank. With an increased population density of the aquarium by fish, this process should occur more often.

Aquarium warmer

How to care for goldfish in an aquarium, given the requirements for water temperature? Very simple, if you take into account the variety of fish that inhabit the tank.

Goldfish are cold-blooded aquatic inhabitants. But they do not always feel comfortable in an aqueous environment with a temperature of 18 to 20 ° C. Especially finicky are fish of local breeding. Also demanding to the temperature regime can be called telescopes, ranches, lion heads. Among all varieties of goldfish, these are the most thermophilic.

Ultraviolet water sterilizer

It cannot be argued that keeping goldfish in an aquarium is impossible without this device. But for those who populate a glass container with imported specimens, or have a number of fish significantly higher than the norm, it is better to purchase it.

Ultraviolet kills the majority of parasites and pathogenic bacteria, as a result of which the infection does not spread in the aquarium. Another "plus" of its use is the fight against lower algae, which cause the "bloom" of water.

Aquarium Decor

If it comes to the decorative elements that serve as decoration for aquariums, the imagination immediately draws ceramic ships, treasure chests, beautiful amphoras, decorative stones, etc. However, anyone who wants to decorate a container with goldfish with decorative jewelry should remember: not for all varieties of these fish any decorative items are suitable.

If the aquarium is populated by fish, telescopes, water eyes, stargazers, it should not be decorated with stones or other decor items that have sharp edges. Plants with sharp leaves and prongs on them also belong to this list. This will prevent injury to such vulnerable fish.

Various "grottoes", "ships", "towers" add a kind of "zest" to the decoration of the container, but at the same time they can serve as objects that fish can easily injure their eyes, fins or growths on their heads. Therefore, they should be especially responsible for their choice.

When it comes to choosing a decor for an aquarium with goldfish, it becomes clear that it is better to choose different sizes and colors of pebbles with a smooth rounded surface. After all, first of all, you need to take care of the fish itself, and only then about the decor that is pleasant for contemplation.

River litter is ideal for bedding. It is recommended to be poured in such a way that at the back wall its level is slightly higher than at the bottom of the entire aquarium.

They do not recommend the presence of sand in containers where telescopes and water eyes live. There are times when representatives of these species of goldfish injure their eyes.

For other fish, the presence of sand is desirable, since it serves as soil that you can dig with pleasure, looking for additional food. Why deprive your darlings of an occupation, which is a manifestation of their instincts?

Aquarium plants

When a picture catches the eye of a round aquarium in which, in addition to a lonely golden fish, there is only water, the heart is filled with pity for the poor creature. You can not keep fish of this species in containers without live plants!

Rule number 7. Goldfish need living plants in their aquarium.

Aquarium plants not only serve as an excellent decoration of the tank, but also help to cope with algae, and also play the role of good fertilizing for aquatic inhabitants.

Many aquarists, knowing that goldfish love to feast on vegetation, do not initially plant plants in the aquarium. But, if you think about it, it’s better to provide your darlings with green spaces so that they partially eat them up and get additional vitamins and minerals from such food, rather than surround the glass fish house with plastic dead green, playing only the role of decor.

Even with this situation, there is a way out: not all plants cause appetite in fish. If the aquarium is decorated with large-leaved or simply “tasteless” plants, they will remain intact, while they will perfectly fulfill their main function - to supply the aquatic environment with oxygen. For this purpose, you can plant anubias, lemongrass, echinodorus, cryptocorynes.

Taking into account the fact that fish of this species adore digging the soil, the base of plants should be overlaid with larger pebbles. So they will not be pulled out of the ground along with the root.

Beginning aquarium fish breeders in most cases start precisely from the content of this type of fish. After all, caring for goldfish does not cause much labor, ingenuity, time-consuming. One can hardly expect fulfillment of cherished desires from them, but these beauties will serve as a decoration for any aquarium. And if you take care of them correctly, who knows how a goldfish will thank its owner ?!

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