Basic fundamentals of organic chemistry for dummies
If you entered the university, but by this time you still did not understand this difficult science, we are ready to reveal some secrets to you and help you study organic chemistry from scratch (for dummies). You just have to read and listen.
The sections that discuss chemical transformations include summary schemes that summarize the main reactions. These schemes serve as guides that make it easy to find ways to convert some substances into others. Schemes should be studied and memorized in detail, and even better, draw similar schemes to your liking.
In the study of organic chemistry, it is necessary to learn a large number of chemical reactions. Before it comes to summary schemes, you will have to remember and understand how many transformations proceed. Special cards can help you with this.
Insert a pack of cards approximately the size of the reagent on one side of the card, and reaction products on the other. For example, for the reaction
the card should look like this: Oh
You can carry these cards with you and view them several times a day. It is more useful to access the cards several times for 5-10 minutes than once, but for a long period of time.
Attitude towards learning
This book is written to make learning as easy as possible. However, diligent independent work is necessary. In the study of chemistry for every hour of classroom activities there should be 2-3 hours of independent work, which includes reading textbooks and lecture notes, solving problems and remembering facts. The best teachers and books will not help without student self-study. With this in mind, you will be present at the classroom and complete all proposed tasks.
Sometimes even a diligent student may encounter difficulties. In this case, and also if it seems to you that your independent work is not effective enough, the help of other people will be useful to you. It is possible to recommend joint classes of small groups of three to five students of the same course. Such regular classes will help you in mastering the material. Those members of the group who have learned this material better than others can explain it.
and help others understand. Of great benefit will be the compilation of tasks and exercises for their comrades and the solution of problems prepared by other students.
The art of learning
Remember that attention to new elephants and terms is just as important in organic chemistry as in other disciplines. Keep in mind that reading scientific books is always slower than reading, for example, fiction. Do not try to read this book quickly. To understand this material well, you need a slow, thoughtful reading. Many people prefer to read twice: the first time for a quick acquaintance, the second for a more careful study and familiarization with the details.
Figure 1-1 shows the relationship between the processes of studying a new subject, and in table. 1-6 lists the difficulties that usually arise when studying a course of chemistry, and the recommended ways to overcome them.
Let these words become your motto when studying chemistry: Do not be afraid to ask stupid questions. They will help you avoid stupid mistakes!
Scheme 1-1. Organization of the process of studying new material
Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry
Organic chemistry is separated into a separate subspecies due to the fact that the object of its study is everything that contains carbon.
Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies carbon compounds, the structure of such compounds, their properties and methods of compounding.
As it turned out, carbon most often forms compounds with the following elements - H, N, O, S, P. By the way, these elements are called organogenes.
Organic compounds, the amount of which today reaches 20 million, are very important for the full existence of all living organisms. However, no one doubted, otherwise a person would have simply thrown the study of this unknown into the long box.
To get a minimum understanding of organic chemistry, get ready to read a lot.
The goals, methods and theoretical concepts of organic chemistry are presented as follows:
- Separation of fossil, animal or plant materials into separate substances,
- Purification and synthesis of various compounds,
- Identification of the structure of substances
- Determination of the mechanics of chemical reactions,
- Finding the relationship between the structure and properties of organic substances.
A bit from the history of organic chemistry
You may not believe it, but back in ancient times, the inhabitants of Rome and Egypt understood something in chemistry.
As we know, they used natural dyes. And often they had to use not a ready-made natural dye, but get it, isolating it from a whole plant (for example, alizarin and indigo contained in plants).
Organic chemistry originated a long time ago, just people called it differently
We can recall the culture of alcohol consumption. The secrets of the production of alcoholic beverages are known in every nation. Moreover, many ancient peoples knew recipes for the preparation of "hot water" from starch and sugar-containing products.
This went on for long, long years, and only in the 16-17th centuries did any changes or small discoveries begin.
In the 18th century, a certain Scheele learned to isolate malic, tartaric, oxalic, lactic, gallic and citric acid.
Further, it is more interesting: in 1773, his fellow worker Ruel managed to isolate urea from human urine.
Then it became clear to everyone that the products that could be isolated from plant or animal raw materials had many common features. At the same time, they were very different from inorganic compounds. Therefore, the ministers of science urgently needed to separate them into a separate class, and the term "organic chemistry" appeared.
It is absolutely not necessary to be a star in chemical science in order to understand organic chemistry from scratch - read our blog, we will tell you everything!
Despite the fact that organic chemistry itself as a science appeared only in 1828 (it was then that Mr. Wöhler managed to isolate urea by evaporation of ammonium cyanate), in 1807 Berzelius introduced the first term in the nomenclature in organic chemistry for dummies:
A section of chemistry that studies substances derived from organisms.
The next important step in the development of organic chemistry is the theory of valency, proposed in 1857 by Kekule and Cooper, and the theory of the chemical structure of Mr. Butlerov from 1861. Even then, scientists began to discover that carbon is tetravalent and capable of forming chains.
In general, since then, science regularly experienced shocks and unrest thanks to new theories, discoveries of chains and compounds, which allowed organic chemistry to develop as actively.
Carbon has four valencies
Science itself appeared due to the fact that scientific and technological progress was not able to stand still. He went on and on, demanding new solutions. And when coal tar in the industry ceased to be enough, people simply had to create a new organic synthesis, which eventually grew into the discovery of an incredibly important substance, which is still more expensive than gold - oil. By the way, it was thanks to organic chemistry that her "daughter" was born - a sub-science, which was called "petrochemistry".
But this is a completely different story that you can study yourself. Next, we suggest you watch a popular science video about organic chemistry for dummies:
Well, if you once and urgently need help professionals, you always know where to find them.