# Bowling - Rules for Beginners

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The essence of bowling is to knock down the maximum number of pins with a ball.

One game (game) for each player consists of 10 frames (frames). The player's task is to bring down all 10 pins in each frame.

In each frame, a player can make 2 ball throws.
Exceptions:
1. If 10 pins are knocked off the first throw, the player does not throw the ball a second time.
2. if 10 pins are knocked down from the first throw in the tenth frame, the player is given two prize rolls, and if from the second throw - one.

The number of points in each frame is equal to the number of pins knocked down (except for “strike” and “spea” throws).

Strike: if a player knocks down 10 pins from the first throw, such a throw is called a strike and is denoted by "X", points in this frame are awarded at the rate of 10 plus prize points - the sum of points for the next two throws.

Spea (spare): if a player knocks down 10 pins with two throws in one frame, such two throws are called spea and are indicated by "/", the number of points in this frame is charged at the rate of 10 plus prize points - the number of points for one subsequent throw.

If a player crosses the foul line, the throw is not counted, regardless of the number of pins dropped. Such a throw is indicated by "F". The result of the game is the result of all 10 frames.

If desired, the result of the game can be printed at the reception from our bowling operator. He will answer all your questions.

GAME SECRETS

Before the cast.

How to hold the ball

A standard ball with three holes is taken with the thumb, middle and ring fingers. The thumb sinks completely, and the middle and ring fingers only up to the second joint. The little finger and index finger lie freely on the surface of the ball, and the palm only slightly touches it.

This is the "traditional capture" of the ball. If the holes of the ball fit to the fingers of the player, then this allows you to swing without squeezing the ball. Do not be afraid that your fingers may get stuck in the holes. To play well, it’s very important to have a ball that fits your fingers.

When making a suitable ball, the distance between the thumb and the rest of the fingers is taken into account. When the correct angle and place for the holes are determined, professionals take up the job.

The ball is considered the most important and personal part of the athlete's equipment.
Starting position

When you enter the take-off zone, you will notice dashed lines. They are located at a distance of 4.5 m and 3.6 m from the line of approach. These lines help you determine the right start point when you take off. Children need to stand closer to the foul line than adults, because their steps are smaller. In any case, it is advisable for the player to stand closer to the foul line. After acquiring some skills, you can go further. Whatever the running distance, do not step over the foul line. Your foot should stop at least a foot from the line. A good position is considered with the legs put together and with the body slightly inclined forward. This will give you a feeling of free readiness, not tension. The ball must be held with the right hand (if the player is left-handed, then with the left) from below at a level between the waist and chest, and with the other hand only slightly support it. Shoulders deploy at right angles to the target. A free hand supports the ball. The wrist should not lean back. The elbow of the hand with the ball is pressed to the hip. Knees slightly bent. The legs are set together and directed towards the target.
Aiming

When aiming in the bowling there is a little "trick". Usually, if we want to get into something, then we look at the goal. But experienced bowling players almost never look at skittles! The idea is to roll the ball towards the pins, which are located far enough, and aim at the marks located close.

Arrows - direction indicators plotted at a distance of 4.57 m from the line of approach, serve as a pointer to the target. Usually it is on them that the aiming is performed.

There are seven arrows on the track. The middle one is located in the center of the track, in line with the main pin. The remaining arrows are also aligned with the corresponding pins.

Your starting position relative to the center of the track and the aiming point are selected depending on the desired trajectory of the ball. By changing the starting position or aiming point, or all together, you can achieve the desired result. After each throw, evaluate how accurate the sight was and whether it should be changed.
The moment of the cast.

Swinging (swing)

Rocking the ball (swing) is based on the "principle of the pendulum." Its essence is that the hand and the ball form a “pendulum”, which has the greatest energy at the lowest point of the trajectory. Using this principle, it will be easier for you to make a throw.

From the starting position, the ball is first sent forward, then a backswing is made (backward swing), after which the hand with the ball rushes down like a pendulum and a throw is made. The height of the back swing should be from the level of the belt to the shoulder, the arm is straight.

As for the weight of the ball, use a ball that can be swung back and forth freely and conveniently. The ball is too heavy for you if the wrist bends during swinging or the weight of the ball forces you to lower your shoulder. And too easy, if you feel that you can "throw it". Steps

The next principle of bowling is the optimal number of steps when performing the approach. Beginners are advised to use the 4-step approach. Experienced players can add a fifth step. The steps are simple, walking type, in a normal manner - from heel to toe.

The first step should be the shortest. The latter, since it includes sliding, should be the longest. At the last step, the player’s boot strikes the approach zone with the fingertips, then makes a sliding motion, and the weight of the body is transferred to the heel to stop.

- The ball goes forward and starts moving down and back.

- The ball moves up and down.

- The ball moves back and forth to maximum swing.

- The ball moves down and forward.

Take the first step with your right foot and, in order not to stray from the pace, consider: “1-2-3-4”. In truth, the sheer number of steps is not as important as your ability to coordinate movements during a run: swings and steps must merge into a natural, continuous chain of movements.

If the number of steps that you take allows you to achieve maximum results - this is right for you, in spite of any principles.

The combination of swing and run together

The start of a run is the moment to set the pace of movement. Focus on continuous and synchronized swing and step. They will determine how successful the whole approach will be. You need to use the power of your steps so that all the accumulated energy of movement is transferred to the ball at the moment when you release it to roll along the track.

This can be achieved by swinging the ball with the greatest amplitude, so that it goes as far back as possible at the penultimate step. The first three steps are taken while swinging back. And when the ball begins its downward movement - the last step, sliding and throwing. The leg sliding at the last step and the arm swinging the ball move forward together, and the ball is released at the moment when the slip comes to an end.

Ball start (throw)

The ball should be released in the last step, at the moment when it moves past the ankles of the sliding leg. The distance from the ball to the ankle should be 2.5 - 5 cm. This requires a little bend over. Bend the knee of the supporting leg in the last step and tilt the upper half of the body forward by 15-20 degrees.

To maintain balance, at the time of the throw, the middle of the chest should be just above the knee of the sliding leg. Keep your head straight while approaching, focus your eyes on the target, and extend your free hand to the side.

After the throw is completed, the player’s hand from the ball’s launch point rises up to shoulder level or higher. The movement of the hand should go along the line directly to the target and not deviate either to the right or to the left. Although the ball is already thrown at this point, you need to train the full completion of the throw.

A good player can easily be distinguished by his manner of throwing the ball and completing the throw. After the completion of the throw, the player’s hand from the ball’s starting point rises to shoulder level or higher. The direction of the hand should be strictly forward, and not left or right. This movement improves span function and helps maintain balance.

Bowling Technique: Target and Strategy.

Throw angle (attack)

The throw angle is important for a successful hit, because it helps the ball maintain its path. The ball should go into the "pocket" between 1 and 3 pins at an angle from right to left and knock down 1-3-5-9 pins. In this case, the player’s chances to strike STRIKE increase significantly.

Twisted balls move from right to left at a large angle, and as a result - a steeper angle of getting into the "pocket" 1-3. But even without twisting, you can achieve the correct angle of impact by directing the ball with a direct hit into the "pocket" on the right side of the track. At the same time, the second arrow on the right is selected as a sight.
Throw theory

As already mentioned, the effectiveness of the throw depends on the angle of the ball falling into the "pocket" between 1 and 3 pins. The angle is determined by the trajectory of the ball, which, in turn, depends on the position of the fingers at the moment of release of the ball.

The thumb comes out of the ball first, and after a split second, other fingers follow. In this fraction of a second, while the fingers are still holding the ball, it is possible to give it some additional movement (rotation, rotation, twist, etc.).

To describe the position of the fingers with different throws, we use a simple and understandable model of the “clock”. Imagine a clock placed across a track on a throw line, on its right side. Division 12 points directly to the track, 6 to the opposite side of the track, and 3 and 9 lie directly on the line of the gap.

Throwing options will be illustrated precisely taking into account the location of the fingers relative to the imaginary clock. In this case, the thumb is in the center of the “dial”, and the middle and ring fingers form the “clock hands”.
Straight Throw (Straight Ball)

The direct throw trajectory goes from the throw line to the pins in a straight line. A direct throw is created when the fingers are at the 6 o'clock position. As a rule, a straight ball is thrown into the "pocket" on the extreme right side of the track, on the right - to the left.

To perform a STRIKE, a direct throw is much less effective than, for example, an arc throw. This is due to the fact that the angle of entry into the “pocket” between 1 and 3 pins is quite small and the straight ball easily deviates from the “correct” trajectory. This leads to the fact that the ball hits the third point in full force at close range and barely touches the fifth point, if at all it hurts. You can improve the results of a direct hit using three recommendations:

The average result for a direct throw is 50% STRIKES. If the result of 175-180 points is acceptable for you, you can use only this blow. A direct throw is recommended when performing SPARE, where it is most effective.

Arc Throw (Arc Ball)

With this technique, the ball moves to the pins in an arc, thereby increasing the angle of attack and improving the result. The position of the fingers on the “clock” during the throw is between 4 and 5. At the same time, when the ball is released, it is necessary to turn the fingers counterclockwise. The intensity of the "rotation" of the fingers determines the radius of the arc.
Beats "SPARE" (SPEA)

An old bowling proverb says: "Learn to hit SPARE, STRIKE hits will come." These strokes are designed to knock down all the pins in one frame from two throws. The main rule is the principle of crossing the track. When the pins are on the left side of the track, the best starting position will be on the right, and vice versa.

To perform SPARE hits, it is necessary to calculate the trajectory of the ball and aim at the pins in the last row (7, 8, 9 and 10). Then the pins in front of them will be knocked down as if by themselves! For knocking down each of the pins 7, 8, 9 and 10 there is an “own” punch with “its” trajectory.

They make up the four main SPARE hits using the track crossing technique. Any combination of punches to knock out SPARE can be obtained using the indicated paths.

For example, to knock down the remaining pins 1-2-4, you should choose the trajectory of getting into the 8 pin, because in the initial position the 8th pin is located directly behind the 2nd pin. If you need to knock down combination 3-6, then you need to use the trajectory to knock out the 9th pin.

Combinations in which the 5th pin remains, you need to shoot down, letting the ball along the path intended for throwing STRIKE. The line for knocking out any of the pins in the back row must pass through the third or fourth (central) arrow or somewhere in between. The starting position is different for each of the shots.

To succeed in SPARE rolls, you must be able to mentally draw the path of the ball crossing the track and throw precisely on it. Practice and experience will allow you to make these throws more successfully once in a while.

How to throw a twisted ball

The direction of the ball depends, first of all, on how and when the ball was thrown. But usually when throwing a ball, some torsion and "lateral rotation" are characteristic. The best bowling players intentionally twist the ball to the side. For beginners, this happens by chance. In any case, twisting affects the movement of the ball. If the ball rotates clockwise, then its direction will be from right to left. The left-hander twists the ball clockwise so that it moves from left to right.

Previously, balls were made of rubber or plastic. But today polyurethane balls are very popular. These balls spin better and less often deviate from the target.

Ball spinning occurs when it first slides off the thumb, and only then on the other two. As soon as the ball is released from the hand, it begins to spin. The direction of torsion of the ball is determined by where the thumb was pointing at the moment the ball jumped off of the hand. This moment lasts for a fraction of a second.

The fact that the thumb is released first is natural, because it is shorter than the rest of the fingers. However, it is important to have a suitable ball in size.

To tighten the ball, place the thumb for 10 or 11 hours, for the left-hander for 1 hour or 2, respectively (mentally imagine the clock face). The position of the thumb at 12 o’clock will create a direct direction of the ball. Throwing a twisted ball, do not bend the hand, it should remain solid. When you release the ball, you should feel pressure or a jerk. Learning to throw a twisted ball is as easy as throwing a straight ball.

Many players try to increase the torsion of the ball by using more force. However, this should not be done to the detriment of good technology.

### Scoring

Many modern bowling centers have automatic scoring systems that display the number of points on the video screen. The computer keeps scoring, although these rules are quite simple, and you can count the points yourself.

Here, in a nutshell, are these rules. If all pins are not knocked down in 2 throws, the frame remains open and the number of points used to evaluate the frame is equal to the number of pins knocked down in this frame. If all 10 pins are knocked down in 2 hits, the frame is considered closed, but in order to evaluate it in points, the player must roll in the next frame and the number of pins he knocked out with the first throw is added to 10 pins of the previous one.

If the player made a strike, i.e. knocked down all the pins with one first blow and closed the frame, then to evaluate it, you need to add 10 pins to the number of pins knocked out by the next 2 strokes. For example, if a player knocked out 2 strikes in a row (made a double), then to 20 points in the frame closed by the first strike, you need to add the number of pins knocked down by a blow after the second strike. If 3 strikes follow in a row, then, accordingly, the first frame is estimated at 30 points. This is the maximum number of points that can be knocked out in one frame. Therefore, the maximum number of points that can be scored in 10 frames (having knocked out all strikes) is 300. To estimate the number of points in the 10th frame (if all the pins are knocked down for 2 throws), an additional third throw is necessary. If a strike is struck in the 10th frame with the first blow, then it is necessary to make two more throws to find out its price.

You can not cross the line of the beginning of the track. If this happens, the player is counted as a foul (spade) and no points are awarded. If there are pins on the track, the distance between them is greater than the diameter of the ball (this is simplified, in fact, this situation is determined somewhat differently), then you have a combination called split. This is a difficult situation, knocking down such pins is very difficult, but maybe you are lucky and you will succeed. That, in short, is all.

### How to hold a ball

A standard ball with three holes is taken with the thumb, middle and ring fingers. The thumb is inserted into the hole completely, and the middle and ring finger only up to the second phalanx (traditional grip). In bowling centers there is a set of balls, different in weight and differently drilled, since the hands of all people are different. As a rule, you can see a number on a ball - this is the weight of the ball in pounds. Accordingly, the larger the number, the heavier the ball. The maximum weight of the ball can reach 16 pounds (i.e., about 7.2 kg). From the balls available in the bowling center, you can choose the one that suits you the most. In this choice, be guided by your sensations when throwing.

### Starting position

In the approach zone, you can notice two rows of points. Первый ряд находится в 15-и футах от линии фола (линия заступа), а второй - в 12-ти футах. Эти точки помогут вам определить вашу исходную позицию. Детям нужно стоять ближе к линии фола, чем взрослым, потому что их шаги меньше. В любом случае новичку желательно стоять ближе к линии фола. После приобретения некоторых навыков можно отойти подальше. Не заступайте за линию фола.Your foot should stop at least a foot from the line. A good position is considered with the legs placed side by side and with the body slightly inclined forward. This will give you a feeling of free readiness, not tension. The ball must be held with the right hand (if the player is left-handed, then with the left) from below at a level between the waist and chest, and with the other hand only slightly support it.

### Pendulum principle and steps

If you take a rather heavy object - the same as a bowling ball - and try to make a throwing motion with your hand below, you will notice that the movement itself generates a driving force. This is the "principle of the pendulum." It forms the basis of good and consistent rocking. It is better to use a ball by weight, which can be freely swung back and forth. If during swinging under the weight of the ball your hand bends or the shoulder drops, then it is too heavy for you. And if you feel that you can “throw” the ball, then it is too light.

Beginners in bowling are encouraged to use the 4-step approach. Experienced players can add a fifth step. The bowling player takes simple, walking-type steps in the normal manner with a heel-on-toe. Only the last step, which includes sliding, is different from the rest. The first step should be the shortest. The last step, since it involves sliding, should be the longest. Count 1-2-3-4 so as not to stray from the pace. Right-handed people should start from the right foot, left-handed people from the left.

### Now about the position of the ball during the approach:

• 1 step - the ball comes forward
• 2 step - the ball moves down,
• 3 step - the ball moves back,
• 4 step - the ball moves down.

If we consider each of the actions separately, then swinging the ball and steps are not such difficult physical exercises. But how you combine these movements will determine how successful the approach will be. It is necessary that all the accumulated energy of steps and rocking is transferred to the ball at the moment when you release it along the path. The ball should go back as far as possible in the third step. During step 4, the sliding leg and arm swinging the ball move forward together. If you can correctly combine the steps and swing the ball, then you will achieve the desired effect.

### Ball toss

Each player’s range and gait are unique, as are their height, weight or age. But when throwing at all good bowlers, you can see common points: before releasing, the ball passes the ankle of the sliding leg about two inches from it. This position is ideal for throwing the ball in the desired direction. A good timing sequence and the right throw result in the perfect combination of driving force, body position and balance. For the ball to pass at the level of the ankle, you need to bend the knee a little at the last step. What may seem like an awkward pose at first will then become quite common. In this case, the body also leans forward at an angle of 15-20 degrees. For balance, the middle of the chest should be directly above the knee of the sliding leg. When approaching, the head remains motionless, the gaze is focused on the target. The free hand is set aside a little and serves to balance. After the completion of the throw, the player’s hand from the ball’s starting point rises to shoulder level or higher. The direction of the hand should be strictly forward, and not left or right. This movement improves span function and helps maintain balance.

### Target selection

Remember that in bowling, those who achieve good results never look at skittles! Aiming is much more convenient when looking at a specific point or arrow on a track than skittles 60 feet from you. At some distance from the foul line, you can see the arrows that you need to aim at. There are seven such arrows. The middle one is located just in the center of the track, in line with the first pin. The remaining arrows are also aligned with the corresponding pins. If you learn how to turn “you” with arrows, then with the finishing tool, which is described below, you will never have problems!

To make a strike, you need to get into the so-called "pocket" - between the pins? 1-3. To hit the ball in the "pocket" it must roll at an angle from right to left. When finishing, you can achieve good results if you release the ball across the track. When the pins are on the left side of the track, the best starting position will be on the right - and vice versa. Practice knocking out spea using the principle of crossing a track. Take different pins as the target. The starting position is different for each throw. You do not need to calculate any formulas, you will eventually be able to determine the point from which you need to move to finish some kind of skittle and arrow on the path through which the ball passes to play spea. Of course, practice and experience will improve your results. There are many finishing systems, and if you are more seriously interested in bowling, you will certainly learn about them (at least from other sections of our site).

### Twisted ball

Sometimes, when you come to the bowling center, you can observe that on the next track the bowling player is twisting the ball that he is playing, and the ball is not going straight, like yours, but in an arc. Many beginners try to make such a throw on their own, but they fail. Then numerous questions begin for the instructor working in the center.

Throwing a spinning ball is a long story. First of all, the path of the ball will be affected by the release of the ball. Then you can talk about the various balls produced today by numerous manufacturers. Well, best of all, if you learn about it from a qualified trainer who will tell you about the different styles of play and schools that exist today.

Before using the drugs indicated on the site, consult your doctor.

## How is the four-step approach carried out

Throwing in four steps requires the proper coordination of all parts of the body at each individual step.

The first movement with the right foot implies the synchronous start of the ball. It is necessary to bring the projectile forward, so that it is at arm's length when touching the right heel of the floor.

Keep your legs together in a starting position. The back muscles should be in good shape, shoulders straightened. Focus on the target and take a step with your right foot. The completion of the first step is a heel on the floor. Simultaneously with the start of the leg movement, push the projectile with your right hand forward. The balance of the right arm and legs makes the jerk effort stable.

Special Bowling Shoes

Do not strain your right hand too much and hold the ball in your hand excessively. To unload the right hand should use the left to support. Do not feed the housing behind the ball. Use back muscle strength to counteract.

With your knees bent, try to step in a natural way for you. The movement of the first step ends in the position of the right forearm at the waist level parallel to the floor surface. The left hand takes over most of the weight of the projectile.

It is also important to choose the right ball weight.

"We swing the pendulum." Without changing the position of the body at the end of the first step, when touching the right toe of the floor, relax the right shoulder. Further, there are three options for moving the ball down - due to muscle tension, increased movement, slowdown or free natural movement (ideal).

In the continuation of the movement, the left hand is retracted to the side in the downward direction and behind the back.

The hand is pulled to the side and back

The position of the back does not change. Shoulders straightened. Without lowering our heads (the gaze is fixed on the target) we touch the left heel of the floor at the moment the projectile is in the lowest position of the arc.

Bowling is available to everyone.

The third step is the final in the movement of the pendulum. The movement continues due to inertia without tension of the right forearm. We begin to move the right leg forward with the simultaneous movement of the ball in an arc up and back. The third step is preparatory to the decisive starting movement. After touching the floor of the right heel, it is necessary to shift the center of gravity to the toe.

Throw technique

At the same time, the ball with the right hand continues to move backward by inertia. The right heel touches the floor when reaching the maximum position of the projectile behind his back. There is also the opportunity to influence the velocity of the projectile by the force of the muscles. But ideally, it is better to provide everything to the force of inertia.

Cutaway Bowling Ball

The beginning of the fourth step is the extreme upper point of the so-called backswing (the final position of the third step, when the ball is in the extended right hand in the up and back position). In the process of sliding on your left foot, you need to release the projectile in a special way. The final step is the result of the right actions in the previous three stages.

The withdrawal of the ball to the throwing position is carried out without additional muscular effort. The force of inertia will be enough to give it sufficient speed on the track.

Strike

Unchanging the correct position of the left hand will be the key to the correct throw with the right acceleration. The tilt of the body forward should not exceed twenty degrees, which will help the quality of the throw.

Upon transition to the slip state, it is necessary to release space for the ball holding the ball of the right hand. The ball is released at the end of the slide without reaching the foul line. Technically, gliding is an integral part of the throw.

Bowling is a great way to hang out.

When the projectile is launched, body weight is transferred to the left leg, ending the movement about five centimeters from the line. The function of the right leg is inhibition. At the same time, she performs an arc movement to the left, using the sock as a brake shoe.

The convenience of maintaining the finishing position for some time after the throw is evidence of the technically correct execution of the throw.

Finish throw

The ball must be released in a certain order. The thumb is released first from the hole, followed by the rest of them smoothly, giving the projectile a rotational movement.

Launching a projectile is not the final stage of the throw. The right hand completes the “pendulum” movement, remaining at the top of the trajectory.

All the secrets of bowling

### How to release the ball onto the track

For competent bowling players, the position of the ball’s vacation is almost identical. The projectile is released at the moment when it is in line with the supporting leg when sliding. The distance to the ankle is no more than two inches. This is an ideal position for making an accurate throw. A certain forward bias will help to complete the action correctly. Here it is required to bend the knee and move the body forward until the chest is above the supporting knee when making the throw.

Beginner Bowling

Learning to play bowling

How to play bowling?

## How to throw, or Technique for correctly sending the ball to the goal

There is a serious difference between bowling and other games that use the ball as inventory. For example, in basketball or football, you need to look at the target that you need to hit, and in popular baseball among Americans, the person who bats the ball with a bat looks at the gloves of his player. In bowling, the player should never look at the pins!

It is necessary to mark with your eyes an approximate trajectory connecting the ball in your hand and the final goal. Then hold it several times in your head and try to direct the shot according to the chosen path.

To achieve greater inertia and to calculate the exact trajectory in bowling, the so-called “stepping” is also used, traditionally consisting of four steps, with the last of which the ball is sent to the target

Another important thing is the swing during the throw. The so-called pendulum principle works here, when the ball has the greatest inertial force in its lowest position. Therefore, you need to make two or three strokes with your hand, getting used to the weight of the ball and calculating its trajectory, and then, after finding your hand behind the body, make the last stroke about half to the lowest point and send the ball to the selected target with your direct hand.

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