Useful Tips

How to write a scientific article for publication

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send


How to write an interesting, high-quality article that you want to read to the end? How to plan an article? Where to collect information for the article? How to make an article? All about this in today's issue.

“I want my article to be read from cover to cover” - this is what every copywriter, author of articles, and journalist dreams of. In this article we will share with you our secrets, which we adhere to when writing any material. Want to learn how to write an interesting, high-quality and memorable article? Read on.

The rules of professional copyright are simple and logical. It is amazing how many people do not follow them - the proof of this is the mass of texts that I don’t want to read from the first sentences.

So, how to prepare for writing material and where to get information?

Why write a student article

Most students publish articles under pressure from external factors. In many universities, especially when studying in a magistracy, only those qualifying works are accepted for defense, as a result of which there are already publications in journals. Sometimes the head or administration of the university requires students to publish in order to increase the university’s position in the ratings.

Some students are intrinsically motivated to do science. Then the availability of published articles can be very useful when applying for participation in a variety of seminars and schools, the costs of which are compensated by any fund.

When entering a master's program, especially a foreign one, a resume is required, and the number of scientific publications of the applicant will be an important advantage in the selection of candidates

There are universities that pay an additional scholarship to students with high publication activity.

Why do graduate students and degree seekers write scientific articles

According to the requirements of the Higher Attestation Commission (HAC), obtaining a candidate of science degree is not possible without 2-3 (depending on the field of science) publications in journals indexed in special databases. Therefore, applicants for academic degrees and graduate students should take care of the availability of the required number of published scientific papers until the dissertation is defended.

His salary depends on the publication activity of a researcher.

In Russian scientific and educational institutions, it is charged taking into account scientometric indicators of employees. This indicator can be considered the Hirsch index, which is calculated taking into account the number of publications of a particular author and the number of citations of his articles by other authors.

How to write a scientific article

How a scientific article is written depends on its type. there is reviews - in them, the author analyzes modern literary data on a topic, evaluates the state of its knowledge, identifies unresolved issues and prospects of research in this area. Usually, review articles are published by famous scientists who are well versed in their topic.

Another type of scientific publication, which may well be sponsored by students, is experimental articles. On your own or with the help of a supervisor, you set a goal, tasks, formulated a hypothesis that you intend to test, plan and carry out the experiment. The results were analyzed by you and you are ready to start writing an article. But how to start writing a scientific article?

The writing process is conveniently divided into three phases:

  1. Preparation for writing, information gathering.
  2. Writing a draft.
  3. Adjustment.

Many skip the first phase and immediately start writing an article. This popular path cannot be considered effective. Imagine: you opened an empty Word document and started writing an introduction to the article. We wrote the first phrase, began to formulate the second. And here you understand that you need to insert some kind of statistics. You remember that they were published in an article by Ivanov and Petrov for 2015. You open the search engine and try to find it, but find only the resume and the output. Then you try to find it in the databases, after some time you manage to download the pdf file with the full text, but now you need to find the necessary statistics in the body of the article. The whole process will take you an average of 20-30 minutes. So much time you actually spend writing two phrases.

Do not neglect the stage of preparation for writing an article. Find all the information you need, organize it so that it is always at your fingertips. And only after that open a new Word document

The second step is draft writing. Students consider it the most difficult stage in writing a scientific article, which they spend most of their time on. If it takes a lot of time and effort to write a draft, it means that you have chosen an ineffective approach.

Instead of quickly describing your thoughts in the form in which they come to mind, you are trying to combine the writing of the draft and the next step - the adjustment. That is, you begin to edit each sentence in the course of the letter, trying to immediately bring it to perfection. You begin to pay attention to detail, but lose sight of the overall picture of your work.

It is better to write down all your thoughts in simple phrases in simple phrases as they are. And then correct the already prepared text and bring it into line with the requirements for writing a scientific article.

Experienced authors recommend learning how to allocate your time in the process of writing a publication as follows:

  • Preparation for writing - 70%
  • Writing a draft - 10%
  • Correction - 20%

Selecting a topic for a scientific article

To write enthusiastically, you need to choose a question that will be of interest to you as an author. Moreover, the article should contain scientific novelty and be within the framework of a topic popular for modern science. You can evaluate relevance using specialized search engines:

  1. natural Sciences ,
  2. articles on all branches,
  3. scientific electronic library
  4. Google Scholar is a service for finding publications in all fields of science.

You can also see the magazines included in the special lists posted on the website of the Higher Attestation Commission.

If on the topic of your scientific article in the last 5-10 years there has been an increase in the number of publications, not only in Russian, but also in English, you can assume that you are on the right track.

Magazines accept publications of no more than 15 pages for publication, so topics for scientific articles should be formulated as specifically as possible. Focus on one aspect. Example: the theme “Memory” can be narrowed down to “Molecular mechanisms of memory formation”

Outline of the article

A formal article writing plan is the document that you will submit to the supervisor for approval before you start writing the article.

A formal plan must contain all the headings and subheadings. They must be indicated in Roman or Arabic numerals. After each title of the paragraph, it is necessary to briefly describe what you are going to state in the corresponding section of the article.

The structure of the scientific article

  • Article title.
  • Annotation.
  • Introductory part.
  • Main part.
  • Object and methodology.
  • Results.
  • The discussion of the results.
  • Final part.
  • Bibliography.

The volume of the article is measured in printed sheets. Magazines themselves set limits on the volume of publication, so you need to ask in advance about the maximum number of printed sheets that you can give.

This section should summarize the content of the entire article. Most readers will only become familiar with this section of your work. The task of this part of the publication is to interest potential readers and describe the essence of your article as accurately as possible. The abstract contains information from all sections of the article, but in a very short summary (250-300 words). Here, the goal of the work, the scientific novelty of the article, the methods used, the main results and main conclusions must be formulated. There should not be any references to literary data.

Abstract should be written last when all work is ready

Introduction

The introduction is the beginning of your scientific article, here should be all the information that the reader needs in order to assess the relevance of the scientific problem you are interested in, the degree of its study to date, the originality of your approach to research.

The basic principle of the logical organization of the material in the introduction: from general to particular. "

That is, first you broadly raise the question, speak out about what is already known. Provide a brief overview of the scientific literature related to the study, be sure to place links to the sources used. Then proceed to more private questions, describe what is not yet known. And gradually bring to the goal of your research. By the end of the section, the reader should have no doubt that your research is extremely relevant, original and of scientific importance.

Main part

  1. The main part of the experimental article necessarily begins with a description of the object of study, methods and the general structure of the experiment. Object of study - on whom (by what) you conducted the experiments. If you had experimental animals, then here you must describe in detail their number, gender, age, in what conditions they were kept, etc. If the subjects were people, it is necessary to indicate their number, gender and age composition of groups, and other important characteristics. To correctly describe your sample, see how other authors of already published studies on a similar topic do it.
  2. The following is information about the methods you used to get the results. The description of the methods and design of the experiment should be so detailed that any other scientist, having read the text, could reproduce your work and, ideally, get similar results.
  3. After the description of the technique, you can proceed to the results. This is the culmination of a scientific article. Illustrations, graph tables, and charts are presented here.

Only illustrations of high quality must be used, otherwise they will look unacceptable, and the editor will reject your manuscript. Visual material does not need to be duplicated with a text description

It is better to briefly summarize each illustration, make a comparison, statistical analysis. In this section you need to state the results you have obtained in a dry, scientific style. Only the facts obtained in this work. Their interpretation and comparison with the literature is given in the next part of the scientific article - a discussion of the results.

The “Discussion” part when writing is given to students the hardest and is not quickly written. If the results are dry facts that were obtained during the study, then the discussion is an attempt to explain them, put forward new hypotheses, give examples, compare your data with literature. This is the most creative part of the work on the article and involves the expression of your own thoughts.

At the beginning of the section, you can briefly list the main results, since many readers begin familiarizing themselves with the texts from this section. Further, guided by the principle of "from particular to general", proceed to the synthesis of data.

In the discussion, it is also possible to indicate the potential practical application of the data you have received.

Final part

In conclusion, it is necessary to indicate whether the goals set at the beginning of the work are achieved, whether the hypothesis is confirmed. Conclusions should be written as briefly and concretely as possible, contain only the facts discovered during this research work, no general phrases and cliches. Typically, the size of the report does not exceed 1 sheet.

Bibliography

In the list of references, it is necessary to list those articles and books to which you refer in your work.

Scientific literature that you do not cite in the work does not need to be included in the list, even if it relates to your topic

There are clear requirements for the design of this section, but they depend on the journal in which the work is supposed to be published. Each scientific publication publishes on its website a detailed guide for authors, where there should be instructions on the design of the list of sources.

Keywords

Keywords are an integral element of every scientific article. Their purpose is to facilitate the search for scientific papers in specialized databases.

In order for your work to be found by potential readers, try to make a list of words, terms and phrases that most accurately reflects the essence of your work

In this section, they are separated by commas. For a sample, you can take a list of keywords in a foreign article as close to your topic as possible.

Rules for writing an article

The basic requirements for the design of a scientific article are indicated in the GOST from 2008, it can be taken as a template. When submitting a manuscript to a specific journal, it is imperative to familiarize yourself with the manual for authors on the publication’s website. It describes in detail what the manuscript submitted to the editor should look like. Correctly use the font Timew New Romans size 14 with one and a half line spacing. Each illustration or table should have its own serial number and name.

As an example for your own manuscript, you can take an article by other authors published in the journal in which you intend to submit your work. This will quickly bring the manuscript in line with the requirements. It’s better to choose the most popular article among readers for the template.

FIRST STAGE: STUDY AND DISCUSSION OF TERMS OF REFERENCE (TOR)

If you write an article yourself for your website or blog, this does not mean that you must skip this stage. You need to prepare TK on your own, otherwise, you risk writing a bad article, which will:

  • not interesting,
  • not logical
  • will not reveal the whole topic,
  • not meet the basic criteria of search engine optimization (SEO-optimization).

If you are writing an article to order, it is important to carefully study the ToR. If for some reason you are given the task to write an article without those. assignments, it is better to require the customer to specify their wishes at least in an email or in correspondence on the same content exchange.

If you forget to discuss obscure or controversial issues with the customer, then for you this can result in a revision of the article or even cancellation of the order, as a result of which you will not only lose precious time, but also money, effort, a client.

Do not be afraid to seem incompetent, as they say: "measure seven times, cut once." In our case, “check the information seven times, write once”. Moreover, it is advisable to consult at all stages of the preparation and writing of the article.

SECOND STAGE: COLLECTION OF INFORMATION

Use reliable sources. What are reliable sources? These are official sites dedicated to a given topic.

You write about the company - this is the site of the company, about the person - his official page, as well as his profiles on social networks, if he supports online communication.

Use primary sources, not reprinted or rewritten materials. Here, knowledge of a foreign language is great for you, we often turn to English-language sites.

Reliable sources also include reputable resources - those you can trust. It is impossible to list any specific ones, common sense will help here.

For example, if you are working on a company’s history, its annual reports published on the official website will serve as a source of financial indicators, and Forbes ratings can be used to visually evaluate the company's activities in comparison with competitors.

If you write about the value of the shares of a corporation, go to the website of the stock exchange, where securities are quoted, and find out their current rate.

Don't be lazy

When working on an article, it’s not enough to “rummage” in 2-3 sources. What if, in your own words, you talk about something that everyone already knows about?

Do not take an example from today's students who write essays about Crime and Punishment based on online reviews of this work ...

Do not be lazy! Be curious! Know how to "dig deeper", look for new information, study the material comprehensively.

For example, if you write in an article that the company's new marketing move was successful - look at the youtube commercials, read about the company that came up with the stories for them, find out which stars were invited to take part in the shootings, how they reacted to this promotion competitors, etc.

If you write about a famous person - read an interview with him, find out his opinion about the sensational film premiere, take an interest in quotes from a celebrity, find out what he is proud of in his life and what news he shared on Faceboo yesterday, etc. etc.

To make the character of the article more “convex”, read books about him compiled by official biographers and / or colleagues, and also study this person’s own writings (if he wrote them).

Разумеется, прочитать все книги целиком – дело трудоемкое, но для того, чтобы познакомиться с характером человека, можно выборочно ознакомиться с некоторыми главами.

Если есть выбор – я закачиваю аудиоверсии данных материалов, это экономит время.

Пользуйтесь свежими данными

Это аксиома. Устаревших данных в избытке хватает и на Википедии. If 2013 is in the yard, then you should not indicate the sales volumes of a well-known company for 2008, unless they were uniquely record-breaking.

If you write that the company is releasing a new gadget - look at the news feed of the developers, maybe they are already busy releasing another technical novelty. In general, enough examples, you already understood everything)

So, you thoroughly rummaged in reliable sources, collected a lot of information and comprehensively studied the material. Now what? Now I will tell you what to look for when writing an article.

Introduce the audience

Be sure to consider what audience your article will be designed for. Suppose you were given the task of writing an instruction article, “How to Install an Application on an iPhone.” If you write this article for advanced users, then the entire text of the article will be reduced to four points:

  1. Sign in appstore
  2. Login
  3. Download
  4. Install app

An experienced person will immediately understand what is at stake. In this situation, you do not need to load it with unnecessary information, give detailed instructions, insert screenshots or videos.

But the beginner from the above instructions will understand, perhaps, only the word “Download”. Therefore, for it you need to prepare a completely different material. Here is an example of such an instruction:

More details can be found here. If you analyze this article, then it contains:

  • 8 186 characters without space,
  • 1374 words,
  • 23 photos
  • 2 videos.

Analyze information

Think about what you will start with, which facts you will surely tell, and which you ruthlessly throw away, so as not to overload the perception of the main material.

Be prepared for the fact that from the source material the final article will get ... 20 percent. But the remaining 80 are not in vain the collected luggage, namely, that will help you to reveal the given topic in a qualitative manner.

Read also:

Write interesting

Write the article as for yourself - so that you yourself would be interested in reading it. The ability to teach information is entertaining - that’s what you need to strive for.

No one reads boring monotonous narratives that make you sad. Often there are materials in which the amount of information per 1 square centimeter just rolls over - from the abundance of numbers and dates ripples in the eyes.

Remember your school lesson (or lecture at the university) - when a teacher monotonously mumbles a theory or scribbles formulas on a blackboard nonstop - attention is scattered.

Teachers were always especially popular, who at the right moment recalled ridiculous cases from life and "relieved the atmosphere."

Of course, all the basic facts need to be covered - without them, your story on a given topic will turn from a documentary into a fantasy. But “dilute” the submitted information a little with a funny fact or quote - and the reader will not run away from you!

Think with your head

It is his own - even in the primary sources, at times, there are such "mistakes" that you are simply amazed! Here is an example for you - we go to the official website of the writer Paulo Coelho paulocoelho.com, then click on the Russian flag and go to the no less official page http://www.coelho.ru/, where we read (quote) in the "Biography" section:

"His reluctance to follow the will of his parents led to the fact that at the age of 17, Paulo was sent to a psychiatric hospital (1966), where he was treated with electric shock."

What bothers me? It’s just that in the indicated year of 1966 Coelho could not have been 17 years old - the birth of the Brazilian writer was 1947!

Such discrepancies can be found everywhere - therefore, before writing something, show a little distrust of the material and think about it yourself!

Write about what you understand

If during the development of the material you come across unknown abbreviations or concepts, study them.

If you simply paste them into the context as they were mentioned in the original source or decide to completely get rid of unfamiliar terms, this will not do you any honor.

After all, maybe your reader will be puzzled by an unprecedented definition, so tell him what's what and increase your level of knowledge together)

Adapt articles to your readers

It's just great if you know how many centimeters are in inches and kilograms in pounds. But, believe me, the average citizen of the Russian Federation is better guided in his usual units of measurement, and not to transfer all these foreign measures to “normal”, in my opinion, simply disrespect to his reader.

If the sales of the new album, rock stars reached an unprecedented mark in New York - that's good. But take an interest also how many people visited his concert in Moscow - this fact will tell about the singer’s popularity no worse.

Make no mistakes

No special explanations are needed for this rule - and so it is clear that only a competent text will make a good impression on the customer.

If you are unsure of your knowledge and / or Word service spell checker, check the spelling of a word in the dictionary. So that later it doesn’t work out, like Winnie the Pooh: “My spelling is lame. It’s good, but for some reason it’s lame. ”

To write an article correctly, I recommend checking errors in the Spelling service. Just do not blindly rely on such automatic assistants. Carefully check the errors that the service points to and think with your head, because the robot can interpret this or that result in its own way, and the person makes the final decision - leave it as it is or make corrections.

Read the finished article

Before submitting the material, be sure to read your work, even if it seems to you that you have already corrected all the shortcomings in the text.

You can print the article on a printer and make notes on paper - if it’s more familiar to you than reading from a monitor screen. We prefer to overtake the article into an e-book and, again, slowly, reread it.

Check the text for uniqueness

The final article should be unique - here you can take advantage of special free text verification programs, which are numerous on the Internet.

The Text.ru service provides a high quality check for uniqueness, however, a comparison of such programs is the topic of a separate article.

Matches with articles already posted on the Internet are allowed when you quote in your work.

FOURTH STAGE: DESIGN OF THE ARTICLE

Regardless of whether your customer has an article designer or not, the copywriter must fill out the text for easy reading. Articles written in one piece are extremely difficult to read. Eyes quickly get tired and a person ceases to perceive information. As a result, the benefit of such an article will not be neither readers, nor your customer, nor you as an employee.

If possible, your material should contain the following structure or elements:

  • content, especially for long articles,
  • paragraphs consisting of 2-3 sentences, no more than 5 lines. It is more correct to build on not from the Word in which you are writing the article, but from the site on which the work prepared by you will be posted. Remember that 5 Word lines on the site can turn into 10, due to the difference in page layout,
  • headings and subheadings h2-h4,
  • lists of transfers (marked and numbered),
  • tables
  • quotes
  • widgets
  • comparative characteristics,
  • Photo and video.

I draw your attention to the fact that not every article should contain all of the listed elements. Also, not in all cases, the copywriter should be engaged in the design, for example, of the same widgets, tables, search and insert photos and video materials. In large projects, Article Designers do this.

Nevertheless, a copywriter is the main character, and who else but you know your material best? You can indicate to the customer in a separate footnote that at this point in the article it would be nice to insert such and such a table or video.

Perhaps this was all spelled out in the terms of reference, which is why the first stage we indicated the study and discussion of TK and made a postscript: "... at all stages of preparing and writing the article."

And finally, remember that your reader is also a person)

Respect him, yourself and your customer.

By the way, I constantly need cool authors who will write on the topic of personal finance, banks, loans, investments, cash benefits, business, earning on the Internet, personal effectiveness. Details here.

On this topic, read also:

If you find an error, please select a piece of text with the mouse and click Ctrl + Enter.

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send