Ficus is a plant beloved by many flower growers, which has one feature: it grows only up. Instances growing under natural conditions can reach a height of forty meters. In apartment walls, the owners often have a question - how to cut a ficus, so as not to harm it. Some novice growers argue about how useful such manipulations for the plant. Experts say that such a procedure as a ficus transplant and pruning is an integral part of caring for this species. It allows not only to form a tree of its original form, but also to rejuvenate the culture.
Pruning and transplanting plants
Before trimming and transplanting ficus, it is necessary to assess the condition of the plant and determine whether it needs preliminary sanitary cutting of dry and non-viable shoots. It is also necessary to remove diseased branches. Sanitary pruning can be done at any time.
Proper plant formation will allow you to achieve unexpected results. In the skilled hands of a professional, these specimens can grow in the form of an arc or a bush, a stem or a bonsai. However, each type of ficus has its own specific rules and nuances of the procedure. Therefore, it is very important for beginners in this matter before trimming a high ficus, to take an interest in the features of a particular species. Before cropping, you should decide on the desired result.
You need to know in advance how to trim a ficus of a certain type correctly so that it has a branchy crown and a powerful trunk, or becomes a small lush bush.
Preparing ficus for pruning
Proper crown formation requires knowledge of the physiology of the plant. Ficus releases new shoots from the kidneys at the apex and sinuses. The axillary are located where the petioles are attached to the trunk. Usually, developing much more intensively, the apical kidney inhibits the activity of others. In order to best activate their growth, it is important to determine when to cut the ficus, which period will be most successful for the life cycle of the plant. In spring, this flower receives the most power. It is during this period that trimming allows you to realize your ideas more successfully. Some beginners are wondering if ficus is cut in the fall and winter. The manipulation carried out at this time will help achieve one-sided plant growth.
Starting the procedure, it is necessary to prepare scissors, a knife or a pruner. Before trimming adult ficus, experts advise that all tools be sanitized with alcohol. An infected infection with a dirty tool can kill the flower. It is recommended to wipe all sections with a damp cloth until the juice is absorbed. Then this area must be sprinkled with charcoal.
Planting ficus and methods of its reproduction
Such a plant can be planted using leaves or processes. For planting, a stalk is selected, which is cut at an acute angle. For a couple of hours it is dipped in warm water, then the place of cut is treated with wood ash. In addition, the flower can be propagated by air layers. Often floriculturists are interested in whether it is possible to trim the roots of ficus, which in the future will be used for planting. In order for such roots to appear, on the top of the main trunk or lateral shoots, it is necessary to make an incision and insert a small stick there. This place is covered with wet moss and tied with cellophane. In a month, roots will appear on the branch. For planting, the bottom of the pot is laid out by drainage. It can be a stone, shards or expanded clay. The drainage layer is covered with moss so that it restrains the ground and prevents it from clogging the drainage holes.
Trimming rubbery ficus
Being a more decorative ficus, this species is more compact, created specifically for home conditions. Most often, its height reaches a height of ten meters. It is very important for the owner to know how to trim the rubber-bearing ficus correctly so that this variety begins to look more miniature and elegant.
This instance allows you to create any shape. Before you trim rubber ficus, you need to familiarize yourself with the pruning rules and stick to them. Even a beginner grower will cope with this task. As a result, knowing how beautifully to cut ficus, from a nondescript flower you can get a unique decoration of the home.
Ficus Benjamin needs to be cut off at the expense of new shoots that grow from the kidneys. There are only two such places on the flower - the apex and lateral bud, which is located in the axils of the leaves. The apical bud is responsible for the rapid growth of the plant up. At the same time, it is far ahead of the side kidneys, which develop too slowly. Sometimes axillary growth points do not show signs of activity, are in a dormant state. Therefore, it is important to know how to trim the ficus so that it shrubs and looks more magnificent.
Removing the upper bud will give the flower a chance to develop lateral shoots, which usually begin to grow in a variety of directions. After such manipulation, the plant may begin to change its crown.
Many beginners in floriculture, starting to engage in ficus, are interested in whether it is possible to crop the top of the ficus so that it stops growing in one shoot. Experts say that if other species after this procedure give a fork, then the rubbery ficus can continue to grow further. Before trimming a large ficus, it is necessary to find short internodes on its shoots. A horizontal cut should be done immediately in front of the kidney if the shoot is green and young. A plant with a hardened trunk is cut in the same place, however, along an oblique.
Trimming Ficus Melanie
Being one of the varieties of rubber-bearing ficus, this specimen also needs pruning. At the beginning of its growth period, this plant is an unbranched trunk with a woody stem. Over time, Melanie begins the branching process, air roots appear, which, reaching the soil, form new trunks. Each owner of this unpretentious species should know how to cut Melanie ficus so that the plant retains its beauty and brightness.
Typically, this specimen is trimmed at the end of winter. Experts advise how to trim the ficus so that it is fluffy, and focus on the fact that for this it is necessary to get rid of the six internodes from above. Having cut off only the top, the flower grower will not be able to achieve the magnificent development of branches.
For those who doubt whether to cut the ficus this year, there is another method to get the flower to give side shoots. To do this, the trunk tilts as low as possible and is fixed in this position. After this manipulation, dominance will be transmitted to the lateral kidney, which is located above the others. The growth of the crown will be stopped, the active growth of the side shoots will begin.
How to trim ficus bonsai?
Growing a houseplant in the bonsai style is a whole science that requires patience, special knowledge and skills. Such compositions look like small works of art. Many experts advise beginners who want to learn this art form to begin acquaintance with bonsai by growing ficus. Such a houseplant is quite unpretentious and has all the qualities for this purpose.
Growing this tree, a beginner will learn how to cut ficus leaves, how to properly care for the plant. It is believed that for the creation of bonsai, such species as ficus Benjamin, ginseng, panda, sacred ficus, Bengal, carika, dark leaf, retuza and others will be most suitable. It is important for a beginner to learn how to cut ficus bonsai to get a tree with an upright trunk of the correct shape or originally curved in some places. You can also create a plant with a tilted trunk and twisted roots. Knowing how to properly prune the roots of the ficus and give it the necessary shape allows you to decorate your home with plants with a bifurcated trunk or a composition of several trees.
To form the desired shape of the crown, you can use special devices that can pull the shoots from the main trunk, adjust the angle between the parts of the plant, fix the branches in the required position. After some time, all these devices must be removed, the shoots themselves will continue to grow in a given direction.
How to trim ficus Natasha?
This species is one of the lowest among Benjamin ficuses, growing in the form of a bush. At home, this instance grows to forty centimeters. Its trunks are very flexible and thin, so it is possible to twist them in several pieces, forming one plant with the original crown.
To correctly cut the ficus Natasha and get a lush green crown, you should wait until the end of February. In this period, the beginnings of leaves appear. Specialists consider the procedure for trimming this ficus mandatory. Branches that are too long, thin, and weak require trimming. In addition, how to cut home ficus to create a beautiful shape, you need to take care of its health and remove dry branches, as well as those that are damaged by a scab or other pests.
The cut must be done over the kidney. For this purpose, special garden shears are best suited. Thick shoots are trimmed obliquely, thin ones are cut directly.
What goals are achieved by trimming ficus
Trimming ficus at home serves such purposes:
- gives the crown a given shape,
- rejuvenates the plant
- prevents stalk exposure
- stimulates branching in a specific place,
- changes the direction of branch growth,
- relieves ficus from dry shoots.
Pruning is carried out in early spring, before the plant enters the period of active growth. The optimal time period for trimming ficus begins with the spring equinox, when daylight begins to gradually lengthen: after trimming, the ficus grows, its axillary buds awaken, which give lateral shoots. However, it is impossible to carry out both pruning and ficus transplantation in one time period: at least two weeks should pass from the date of pruning to the day of transplantation (or vice versa).
The peculiarity of rubber-bearing ficus is that it will grow up until it hits the ceiling: under natural conditions, this plant is capable of reaching a height of 50 m. However, the first pruning of this species is carried out not earlier than it reaches 70 cm. If you think that the ficus has reached the desired height, cut off its growth point - the top of the main shoot. And in order to shorten a rapidly growing plant, cut it at the desired height, but so that the cut passes a few centimeters above the leaf. Blot the wound with a wet cloth to stop the flow of milky juice. After a while, lateral shoots will appear on the ficus. If necessary, pinch them to get a tree with a lush crown.
You need to pinch the plant not with your bare hands, but with a sharpened sterile instrument. Disinfect tools with medical alcohol.
The top of the trunk is cut obliquely, and the side shoots are separated by straight sections. Thin branches can be cut with scissors, which are previously also rubbed with medical alcohol.
If you need to direct the growth of shoots in the other direction, do it with the help of a wire: young ficus branches easily change direction.
Sanitary and anti-aging ficus trimmings
Sanitary trimming of ficus is carried out as necessary, that is, not only in spring, but also in summer and autumn. The procedure consists in the removal of patients, shrunken and weak shoots, which can become a source of damage to fungal diseases.
Anti-aging pruning is needed for old plants that have lost their decorative effect. Rejuvenation is carried out in the spring, before the start of active growth: dead branches are cut out, and living branches are cut in half. This concerns not only the main branches, but also second-order shoots. Slices, after the milky juice ceases to stand out, are treated with carbon powder. If all the branches of the ficus are dried, the plant is cut to a stump: not only the branches are removed, but the trunk of the plant is shortened to 7-10 cm. If there is good care of the ficus, it will gradually restore its crown by building up new shoots.
Ficus crown formation
The crown of a ficus can be formed in the form of a bush, a tree with a stem, a tree with a long trunk, and geometric figures can be created from the crown of a ficus Benjamin. If you are a person with creative imagination, then you can easily form a unique plant that looks like nothing else.
Bush: pinch the main shoot of the ficus over the 3-5 leaf to stimulate the growth of lateral shoots from the axillary points. As soon as the lateral shoots reach 10 cm, they are cut off over the outer kidney. To make the crown symmetrical, the pot with ficus must be periodically rotated around the axis. Shoots that grow inside the crown must be redirected or trimmed.
Stamp: all lower shoots are removed from the stem of a young plant and only 3-5 upper shoots are left. Trimming ficus is necessary until the plant reaches the desired height.
Ficus crown formation
Longline stamb: This crown shape can only be created on Benjamin’s tall adult ficus with a vertical trunk. For two-level stem the crown is divided into three parts, after which the shoots in the first and third parts are gradually formed into a ball, and the middle part of the crown is freed from branches and shoots, since it will be the gap between the first and second ball. Three Level Stamb consists of 5 parts, of which the first, third and fifth with the development and growth of the ficus are formed in the form of a ball, and the second and fourth are released from shoots to become an intermediate section between the three tiers.
Spiral: A young and flexible ficus trunk is freed from all shoots and wrapped around a support, which can be used as a thick wire.
Banyan tree: in the center of the pot with ficus, consisting of several trunks, install a coconut tube. Over time, the roots of ficuses will begin to braid the core, resulting in a single structure that resembles a banyan tree.
Bonsai tree: This plant can be obtained from any Benjamin ficus variety, but it’s easier to use the Wyandi variety because it grows slowly and has a curved wavy trunk. Typically, bonsai are grown from cuttings by planting it in a wide container with poor soil. 2-3 times a year, the plant is removed from the soil and its roots are trimmed, after which the ficus is again planted in the same container. Pruning shoots is also carried out 2-3 times a year. The bonsai branches and trunk are entwined with thick copper wire, gradually bending it to give the plant the desired shape. The formation of bonsai occurs in 4-5 years.
Ficus weaving: This process is not related to pruning, but it forms the appearance of the plant. Straight and thin trunks of several ficuses planted in the same container of the same height are intertwined either spiral-shaped (two trunks are enough) or oblique (three trunks are needed). Fix the upper plexus with copper wire or thick woolen thread. Every 2 months you need to check the place of fixation and, if necessary, weaken it or, conversely, strengthen it. When you decide that weaving is enough, fasten its upper part with a bracket. As a rule, the crown of such plants is formed in the form of a ball.
Ficus Microcarp - formation features
This instance at first glance resembles the ficus of Benjamin. However, he differs from his relative in that his rhizomes grow very quickly. Thanks to this fact, Ficus Microcarpus is an ideal choice for those who are starting to get acquainted with the art of bonsai. Not distinguished by special difficulty in care, this instance will not only attract beginner gardeners. He survives very well in very humid rooms, is not particularly capricious, although he does not tolerate drafts and sudden temperature changes.
In fact, how to cut the ficus of Microcarp is practically the only thing a beginner needs to learn. To form a lush crown, this tree needs regular pruning several times a year. The best time to trim a ficus of this species is in the spring-summer period. During this time, shoots must be regularly shortened. Regarding the question of whether it is possible to cut the trunk of a ficus, experts answer unequivocally - yes. This action will increase the thickness and power of the trunk of this small decorative tree. When forming a bonsai tree from this type of ficus, it is recommended to shorten each branch after 6-10 leaves appear on it, leaving only three or four.
What is famous for the genus "ficus" from the mulberry family
Ficus rubbery in the natural environment
In enclosed spaces, rubber ficus is the most common. It occupies an area limited by a tub or box and a space around no more than 1-2 meters in diameter. На родине в индийских джунглях род фикус представлен огромным количеством, полезных для аборигенов, растений от гигантских (под тенью которых могут отдохнуть более 100 семей) до карликов в виде миниатюрных кустарничков ползучей формы. Есть и лианы-душители. Обвиваясь вокруг деревьев, они врастают в стволы хозяина и душат его «в любовном экстазе».
For the first time, struck by the size of the crown of ficus (in modern terms, about 300 m in circumference), this plant was described by the famous botanist Theophrastus more than 2000 years ago.
A closer acquaintance with the family is surprising in its diversity and biological features. In an amazing mulberry family, close relatives are:
- figs (fig tree, wine berry, fig, fig),
- mulberry (here, mulberry, tsar berry),
- bread tree (Jacques tree with fruits up to 20 kg weight),
- paper tree (make the highest quality natural paper)
- cow tree (tastes and nutritious milk),
- rubber ficus (rubber tree, elastic or elastic ficus, contains 17.3% natural rubber),
- upas (anchar) - the most poisonous representative of the genus, perfectly described by A.S. Pushkin in the poem "Anchar."
Ficus in the Room - Botanical Description
Rubber ficus is the most common type of pot culture for indoor floriculture.
At room conditions, it is limited in growth by systematic pruning and usually has 1.5-2.0 m in height. In natural nature, its growth is more than 40 m.
A young single-stemmed tree, with increased humidity in the room, forms aerial roots on the trunk and lateral branches with age. If you leave them, then reaching the ground, they form new trunks and the tree takes the form of a banyan tree - a multi-stemmed tree. Aborigines call this ficus "snake tree" for this feature.
It is considered a tree of well-being and family health. Floriculture lovers attribute to ficus the ability to purify the air from pathogenic microbes by 40 percent or more.
Young leaves of ficus of a pinkish-brown color with time acquire a dark green typical of the culture. Petiolate leaves, another arrangement. The leaf blade is oval elongated, leathery, with a shiny surface up to 30 cm in length and 10-20 in width.
In room culture, ficus practically does not bloom. When kept in greenhouses and winter gardens, it can bloom at a very respectable age. After flowering, forms small oval siconia fruits up to 1 cm in diameter, yellow-green in color. In appearance, Siconia resemble figs, but are inedible.
The need for pruning when caring for ficus
To maintain a decorative form, the ficus needs to be trimmed, but not ordinary, but crown-forming. Slight trimming of the top of the plant does not give the expected effect. The ficus of branching will not start and, instead of the expected tillering, only one very upper lateral bud will begin to develop, the plant will be one-sided.
The significance of the cropping period
- The most suitable for the formation of the crown of rubber ficus is early spring pruning, when the active vegetation of the plant begins.
- Significant pruning of the central stem during this period will contribute to the awakening of the axillary buds, from which lateral shoots will develop.
With late pruning (winter or winter) pruning, usually only the uppermost kidney wakes up (the first after the trimmed top). The plant will take a one-sided shape and lose its decorative effect. Trimming in the late period is performed only when absolutely necessary.
- Always use a sharp, sanitized tool to trim
- The trimming height is 10-15 cm (approximately 3-5 leaves) from the top of the stem,
- If the stem to be trimmed is thin, the cut is performed directly above the bud,
- If the stem is thickened, the cut is performed at an angle of 45 degrees. The beginning of the cut above the kidney, the end is at the base level of the next kidney,
- when trimming the side shoots, the cut must be performed on the outer bud so as not to thicken the bush,
- lateral and other shoots are cut off without hemp, on which fungal-putrefactive diseases usually begin to develop,
- remove the milky juice on the slice with a napkin, and treat the slice with finely ground coal or any antifungal solution (you can use phytosporin –M biofungicides, trichodermin or others),
- after the sections are healed and the lateral buds begin to grow, the plant is transplanted, preferably by transshipment. After circumcision, at least 3-4 weeks should pass,
- milky juice is poisonous. Gloves and safety glasses are required during operation.
Types of artificial ficus formation
With the help of forming trimming, you can give the rubber ficus several interesting shapes that will decorate the interior of any room:
- First way. To form a bush form, cut off the top of the central stem and all lateral shoots. The top is cut by 10-15 cm with a plant height of 70-75 cm. Pinch lateral shoots when reaching a length of 8-10 cm. Deep trimming of the central stem stimulates the growth and development of lateral shoots and somewhat stops the development of the central one. As a result, a cozy bush is formed under which you can sit and meditate in air purified from germs.
- The second way. A young plant in conditions of high humidity forms aerial roots that direct into the soil. Rooting, they form a banyan tree. With dense root formation, thinning is performed, removing the roots and branches growing inward.
To form a stem in a single-stemmed young rubbery ficus, use its ability to grow up. From below, leaves fall, exposing the stem. In the absence of natural exposure, the lower leaves and shoots are torn off to a height of 40 cm when the flowerpot is located on a windowsill or other elevation and 90 cm when standing. The central stem is cut 10 cm, delaying its growth. Priority in development is given to young side shoots. At the required height, the lateral branches pinch (do not cut) on the outer bud, providing the opportunity to grow up parallel to the central stem and, in turn, branch. It turns out a standard tree with a crown. In order for the crown to become branchy, there is a method of forming side shoots with an arc.
When the central stem reaches the required height, the top is cut off. At the same time, side shoots wake up. Ficus rubbery grows mainly up. To get a branchy crown with arched branches, it is necessary to bend the side shoots of a young plant and fix it in a curved position. In this case, the lateral buds of the upper side of the curved stem wake up and actively develop. When the lateral shoots reach the desired length, the fixation is removed. It turns out to be a branched crown with arched branches on the stem.
Decorative varieties of ficus rubbery for home growing
Ficus rubbery ordinary forms a dark green leaf mass. Breeders have developed decorative varieties with variegated leaves. Among them, the most famous in home culture:
- Ficus elastica ‘Decora’, whose young leaves have an unusual bronze color,
- Ficus elastica ‘Doescheri’, the variegation is unusually elegant, literally mesmerizing,
- Ficus elastica ‘Robusta’ with smart green leaves,
- Ficus elastica Black Princ, characterized by almost black leaves,
- Ficus elastica variegata, variegate leaf blades with cream edges and other patterns,
- Ficus elastica trikolor with variegated leaves.