Mold in the cellar, like cotton wool, is very common. The reason for this is poor ventilation, high humidity. Many stopped paying attention to mold in the cellar. Malicious spots on the ceiling not only spoil the appearance, but can also cause significant damage to human health.
In addition, the products stored in the cellar will suffer. Mold has the ability to spread to other objects, actively multiply, which significantly reduces the shelf life and usefulness of products. If fungus is found in the cellar, be sure to deal with the destruction of mold. The following material will help to do this correctly, to prevent the reappearance of the fungus.
What is mold?
The fungal colonies that develop from spores are called mold. Spores are constantly in the air, only under the influence of adverse factors (increased humidity, heat), they begin to "wake up" and actively multiply. Mold fungi can grow on concrete, paint, wood. Many types of mold are distinguished, depending on this you can see spots similar to cotton wool of black, brown, green, white. There are also luminous fungi, but they are not dangerous for the walls, ceiling of the cellar.
Mold is capable of destroying building and finishing material, sometimes it comes to the bottom. Therefore, the owners of mold in the cellar should think about getting rid of the mushroom colonies as soon as possible, otherwise they will have to make repairs or even rebuild. Allocate black, white, brown mold. The specific color depends not only on the type of fungus, but also on the stage of development, the color of the surface on which the uninvited "guest" has settled.
Why does it appear in the basement?
Basement, ground floor and cellar are places where moldy fungi appear and breed most often. The reasons for the appearance of mold in these places are highlighted:
- In summer, the temperature in the basement rarely exceeds 5 degrees. The temperature difference in the street and in the basement is the main cause of moisture condensation on the ceiling and walls. It is in such an environment with a humidity of 80% that mold appears.
- Due to poor ventilation, air stagnates (the smell of dampness, stale air indicate this). Air of this quality forms an environment for mold growth.
- The temperature difference is felt more strongly in the absence of waterproofing and insulation. Because of this, moisture condenses more strongly.
- The fungus forms in a poorly lit or dark room.
Cellar products or wooden items that have active spores contribute to the growth of the fungus.
Due to the above reasons, these types of fungi appear:
- Blue fungus. It is dangerous for wooden things, as it deeply affects the structure of wood. The tree turns blue. The fungus increases humidity and promotes the appearance of other types of mold.
- Black mold. It is born on concrete and stone surfaces, as well as on those treated with poor quality paint. Black mold also affects food.
- White mold breeds on cellar walls and foods. Disputes cause allergies, worsen lung health - this is what the white mold in the basement is dangerous.
- Other types, the list is not exhaustive.
In addition to white, black and blue mold, a rotting fungus is isolated, which covers the surface of wood and is divided into types:
- Brown rot destroying wood planks.
- White rot, damage the structure.
- Bacterial stains gray and reduces strength.
Important: you need to destroy the cause of mold. Otherwise, an unfavorable factor will create conditions for the appearance of mold again.
The danger of fungus to humans
The fungus is dangerous for people with chronic diseases: allergy sufferers and asthmatics. If spores get into the bronchi, mucosal irritation appears. A person's condition worsens, since spores are a strong allergen.
The fungus that appears in the room develops a disease. They are divided into groups:
- The first includes invasive skin lesions, bone mycoses. These include destruction of the nail plates, impaired vision, hearing, etc.
- External manifestations are referred to the second: vasculitis, eczema, bronchial asthma, dermatitis, etc.
The most dangerous type of fungus is yellow, which emits aflatoxin. This substance causes a runny nose, otitis media, mycosis, migraine, diseases of the cardiovascular system and others. Black and white mold is not so dangerous. However, any species must be disposed of, as health is harmed.
American scientists in their studies have proved that mold is common among the causes of childhood asthma.
Popular methods and means of disposal
The fight against mold in the cellar is carried out in two ways: folk remedies and specialized. Folk remedies can destroy mold, but do not guarantee protection against it in the future:
- Ammonia with water. It is bred in a 1: 1 ratio with water. Spray from the spray gun.
- Hydrogen peroxide, the concentration of which is 3%. Do not apply the mixture on painted surfaces, as lightening occurs.
- Vinegar is the most harmless treatment option that kills mold.
- Mono Mach is a Russian-made concentrate suitable for all surfaces except polypropylene and metal.
- "Antifungal" - suitable for the destruction of small mold foci.
- Spectrum Fungicide is suitable for all types of walls and building materials. It is able to eliminate fungi in rooms with high humidity.
Blue vitriol and lime
Copper sulfate is a remedy that helps fight fungus on ceilings, walls, garden trees, effectively. It is used with slaked lime if rot is present.
Get rid of mold fungi as follows:
- Find out the main cause of the appearance of the fungus and eliminate it. Ventilate the room, insulate, regulate the temperature.
- They remove wallpaper if they are in the basement, clean the plaster, and remove the skirting board. For surfaces with paint use whiteness or bleach.
- Drying coatings (walls, floor and ceiling). To do this, use a lamp or a building hair dryer.
- Vitriol is divorced with warm water, observing a proportion of 1: 1. The tool processes all walls, crevices and recesses. It is allowed to finish the room after the vitriol has completely dried.
To process the walls you need 4-5 buckets of mortar. This is an inexpensive tool. Wooden bars and panels are recommended to be varnished to avoid dampness and decay. Slots are coated with sealant before applying the plaster. The final stage is antiseptic treatment of mold.
On the floor, mold is also removed with vitriol. But, unlike walls, it mixes with vinegar.
Lime is a quick and effective way to fight against fungus. It is used to prevent the spread of mold spores. Before lime treatment, the cellar is covered with deactin.
Lime is stirred in water. Solutions with lime:
- Lime with formalin. To obtain a solution, 200 g of formalin, 500 g of lime and a bucket of water are mixed. After processing the mold in the cellar, the room is dried.
- Lime mixed with copper sulfate (recipe above). This solution is sprayed or dabbed.
White mold in the basement: why is it dangerous?
It is easy to detect mold in the basement by the characteristic smell of dampness and mushrooms. Black, white, gray or yellow spots appear on the walls, floor and ceiling. Growing, mold destroys building and finishing materials, shortening their life. If mold appears on the pipeline, it accelerates the corrosion of the metal, corrodes the seals at the joints, the pipes begin to flow, the water supply and sewage systems fail.
But the white and black mold in the basement threatens not only the condition of the house. It is dangerous to humans. Many types of mold are toxic: they release poisons into the air, which even at low concentrations cause nausea, vomiting, headache, and disrupt the functioning of the nervous system. White mold in the basement is a known allergen. Her spores irritate the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and cause chronic rhinitis and bronchitis. Some types of black mold found in the basement can affect weakened organisms, and are especially dangerous for children and the elderly.
The main damage from mold in the house:
- creating an unhealthy environment that is dangerous for people and pets,
- reduction of the operational life of building and finishing materials,
- destruction of utilities in the basement.
Easy ways to clean mold in the basement
If you smell mold in the basement, it is recommended that you take measures to eliminate it. First you need to find a colony: black or gray spots and streaks in the joints between the foundation slabs, next to the pipelines, in places of greatest dampness. First, the mold is removed mechanically using scrapers, then the entire room is disinfected - so you can not only destroy the mold in the basement, but also get rid of most of the spores.
To protect against the reappearance of a dangerous fungus, you need to create conditions unfavorable for its growth. For example, install local ventilation in the basement, with the help of which it will be possible to regulate the temperature and humidity indicators of the air. Well thought out system:
- removes excess moisture from the air,
- prevents the formation of condensate and damping of building materials,
- eliminates stagnant air masses.
If the basement is fresh and dry, you do not have to destroy the mold - it will not appear.
To create low-cost and efficient ventilation in the basement, solar-powered equipment is used - an alternative to traditional electric fan heaters and dehumidifiers. The principle of operation of the devices is simple: they heat the air coming from the street and feed it into the room. Warm fresh air drains the room and displaces the exhaust gases that are discharged through the ventilation shafts. A healthy microclimate is established in the premises, not suitable for the growth of the fungus. But, unlike electrical equipment or appliances running on gasoline and gas, solar devices do not consume expensive energy and still have a number of important advantages.
Solar energy to prevent mold in the basement
For the operation of solar equipment does not require any irreplaceable energy resources: electricity, coal, diesel or gas, only solar energy is used. Therefore, the devices do not need to be connected to the mains or other utilities connected to them: the installation is very simple and is carried out without preliminary development of project documentation. Therefore, it is possible to install solar collectors to protect the basement from mold at any time, even after putting the house into operation, without the need for expensive or lengthy commissioning.
Solar powered equipment:
- Autonomously and successfully used on remote and non-electrified facilities,
- It is fireproof and works without human control,
- Just picked up and mounted,
- It does not expend irreplaceable resources and does not burden the family budget - its work is free,
- Eco-friendly and environmentally friendly.
The device automatically turns on every time the sun's rays fall on it. As a result of forced ventilation, a healthy microclimate is established in the rooms, a positive temperature is always maintained, and mold will not appear in the basement.
Reasons for the appearance
Mold never appears just like that, other adverse circumstances precede this event:
- absence or clogging of ventilation shafts. The lack of fresh air contributes to the growth of fungal colonies,
- increased level of humidity, accumulation of condensate. This aspect often depends on the first factor,
- insufficient air circulation in the cellar,
- storage of rotten fruits and vegetables. Spoiled products become sources of mold, spores are actively distributed throughout the room, settling on the walls, floor and ceiling,
- the use of wooden products that are infected with spores of fungi.
Favorable breeding conditions
Why does mold appear in some cellars and not in others? For the emergence of "life" certain conditions are necessary:
- the presence of spores in the air. They are transported and deposited in the cellar on people, food, animals,
- nutrient organic medium (paper, wood, soil, peat pots),
- favorable microclimate (high humidity, temperature about 20 degrees). Poorly functioning or even non-working ventilation also negatively affects.
Some types of fungus have the ability to reproduce at a temperature of 0 degrees.
Pay special attention to the ventilation system. After all, it is designed for normal air circulation in the room. The movement of air prevents the fixation of mold spores on any surface. In the corners, the movement of air is difficult, it is there that fungal colonies often accumulate.
Ventilation helps to remove excess moisture from the room, which occurs against a background of high humidity outside or a large difference in temperature. If spores of fungi are on the walls, but there are no favorable conditions for reproduction, then they will not germinate. Based on this, it can be concluded that poor ventilation is the main reason for the appearance of fungal colonies in the cellar.
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Read about how and how to remove mold from the wall in the apartment at this address.
Effective Fighting Methods
How to process the cellar from mold and mildew? Killing mold is hard work, requiring a lot of effort and time. The causes of the trouble must be considered. An integrated approach will help get rid of mold, similar to cotton wool, to prevent the re-growth of spores of mushrooms in the cellar. The fight against fungal colonies is carried out in several stages, each of which is described in detail below.
Citric acid (can be cultivated in the underground)
Citric acid has a disinfecting effect and is usually found in every home. To remove mold in the basement, a concentrated solution is prepared. Three liters of powder are put per liter of water. All surfaces affected by mold fungus are treated with a solution. Be sure to lubricate the cracks. A solution of citric acid can be used to treat walls, floors, ceilings, washing machines and clothes. However, this solution is more suitable for the treatment of washing machines or clothes than the earth in the underground, since the price is expensive.
Preparing to eliminate dangerous microorganisms
- at the time of processing the premises, be sure to free it from all objects, appliances and food. Thus, you will provide excellent access to possible places of localization of mold, protect products that are in the cellar,
- remove all furniture, large objects from the room. They must also be treated to prevent mold from re-infecting the cellar,
- Clear out the room. Clean off all mold, if the spores of the fungus penetrate deep into the finishing material, be sure to replace the damaged structures with new ones,
- the tree rots very quickly, if the earthen floor, then about 20 centimeters of the soil layer must be eliminated (it is probably infected),
- After thoroughly processing the cellar, proceed to dry the room. Only then is it allowed to begin an immediate fight against mold.
Destruction of fungal colonies
It is not enough just to remove the visible mold; it is necessary to completely destroy the dangerous microorganisms. In specialized stores, you can easily find antiseptics that show antibacterial, disinfecting effects. Drugs must be used strictly for their intended purpose, following the instructions.
How to deal with mold in the cellar? An excellent result is shown by folk remedies that quickly destroy dangerous microorganisms. Their use is very simple, rarely causes allergic reactions.
Folk recipes for fungus on the walls:
- process usual whiteness of a wall, ceiling, floor. The active components of the product will quickly destroy harmful microorganisms,
- ammonia has a similar property,
- a concentrated solution of citric acid perfectly kills mold (take 100 grams of powder per liter of warm water),
- use a sulfur checker. The tool has been tested by more than one generation, is an excellent invention against various parasites. Put a checker in a metal container, leave the product indoors for the whole night. After the procedure, clean, thoroughly ventilate the cellar,
- combine 300 grams of copper sulfate, two kilograms of quicklime, dilute in 35 liters of water. Using this product, process all surfaces, walls, ceiling and floor in the cellar several times,
- in a similar way, use the following mixture: five liters of boiling water, 100 ml of boric acid, a kilogram of salt,
- dangerous microorganisms die under the influence of high temperatures. Обработайте поверхности горелкой, но такой способ не подходит для деревянных поверхностей,
- соедините по 50 граммов формалина, хлорной извести в двух литрах воды. Полученным раствором обработайте поверхности в погребе.
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Go to http://parazitam-stop.com/nasekomye/blohi/kak-izbavitsia.html and see information on how to process a flea apartment.
Avoid allergic reactions, damage to the skin using precautions:
- wear protective clothing, goggles and gloves before killing mold
- it is strictly forbidden to sniff, touch dangerous microorganisms,
- after processing the room, leave it,
- Products affected by mold are strictly forbidden to eat.
Only having cleared the cellar of pathogenic microorganisms, you will feel completely safe, eating fresh and healthy products.
Regularly carry out preventive measures to combat dangerous microorganisms in the cellar. Keep the room clean, regularly clean it, without fail thoroughly dry the room:
- drying the cellar takes up to fourteen days. Perform manipulations on cloudless days, take shelves out, pre-treat them with water and liquid soap,
- after a week the boards are completely dry, then treat them with an antifungal agent,
- dry cellar, after thorough drying, treat with a similar product,
- if the cellar includes an earthen floor, then pour in a solution of copper sulfate. Place sand or lime under the vegetables.
Another interesting method of dealing with mold in the cellar and garage can be found in the following video:
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Tell your friends!
A fungus is simply a scourge of humid and poorly ventilated rooms. Our acquaintances freeze a corner in the room, so every year in the summer a whole angle of blackness grows there. And at least henna. How much I told them that it is very harmful and negatively affects their health as if they do not care. Well, they re-glued the wallpaper, but it’s all the same to the fungus. he crawled out and on top of new wallpapers. I say you need to clean everything up and putty again, until they react. And I am very worried about them.
The method of processing the cellar with smoke from a sulfuric bomb is good, but there is a side effect, steel objects begin to rust intensively (very significantly), so you should choose.
The video at the end of the article - to spend your and our time shooting and watching the video and not tell which tool you used - it needs to have a certain talent! )))
Chlorine and similar products
To get rid of the fungus, use whiteness and bleach. These products remove mold in the cellar efficiently and quickly. The result after treatment with bleach is the same as that from the sulfur block.
Chlorine-containing products are used according to the algorithm:
- The mold is cleared. Brush pass on the surface where the mold is located.
- Prepare a solution. White is bred in a proportion of 1/10 in water.
- To increase the effectiveness of the solution, two tablespoons of salt are put in it. Thanks to her, the reaction will be stronger.
- The finished product is applied around the perimeter of the room: on the walls, ceiling and floor. Places where mold accumulation was greatest are handled more carefully.
- Shelves, racks and other accessories installed in the basement are also processed.
- It is not necessary to wash off the solution from surfaces after treatment.
- The final stage is the ventilation and drying of the room.
Important: if the fungus appears repeatedly, then you need to check the air exchange system in the room. You need to look at the pipes, as they can leak.
Sulfur combustible checkers are used for the basement. In the process of combustion, a substance is released that settles on the surface and kills the formation of spores - sulfur dioxide.
When using this tool, you need to tightly close the door to the basement. After using toxic material, do not store food in the cellar for up to two weeks.
Important: observe safety precautions. The substance released during combustion is toxic. It causes poisoning by getting into the respiratory tract or digestive tract.
Burner or blowtorch
When firing with a torch or blowtorch, mold and spores are first removed. This will prevent the fungus from spreading over the surface. After firing the mold, you need to process the basement with special tools. The interval between procedures is up to two days. Only an integrated approach can save the room from mold.
The blowtorch is rarely used, this method is unsafe. An alternative to a blowtorch and a torch is a technical hairdryer. After drying, an antiseptic is used.
Hydrochloric acid: processing instructions
Hydrochloric acid is a concentrated substance. It helps to completely get rid of mold. To get a good result, careful processing is needed. When working with hydrochloric acid, observe the following precautions: wear gloves, a respiratory mask and protective clothing.
Important: a low concentration is also capable of causing burns, so protection is needed tight.
Instructions for use are provided on the packaging. The solution is diluted so that the concentration decreases. Of improvised means, this is the most effective, which destroys mold and other fungi completely.
Zinc surfaces can be damaged by hydrochloric acid. Therefore, you need to use it carefully.
Stripping (room preparation)
At the preparation stage, all things and products are taken out of the cellar. Products need to be sorted and discarded those that are affected by the fungus. Wooden shelves and racks are removed and thrown away (if they have mold). Walls and other surfaces are cleaned with a metal brush to prevent mold deposits.
Important: use a stiff brush.
Shelves that are not affected by spores are left and dried for several days in the sun. After that, they must be treated with chlorine-containing deactin or another disinfecting solution. Top they are varnished if made of wood.
The fungus on the earthen floor of the cellar is disposed of, removing 10-20 cm of the layer.
The final stage in the stripping phase is disinfection. Spend it with the help of sulfur drafts. The active substance contained in it penetrates into deep angles. When processing sulfur do not open windows and doors for 10-12 hours, after which the room is ventilated for up to three days.
Waterproofing, processing and coating of walls
Waterproofing is needed to prevent dampness on the walls of the basement (dampness occurs when the vertical waterproofing is violated). To check and correct deficiencies, the walls of the basement are excavated and dried, after which normal tightness is restored.
Types of waterproofing improvements:
- The horizontal type of waterproofing is improved with capillary moistening of the cellar walls. The dampness of the walls, in this case, reaches the ceiling and then to the floor on the first floor. Walls in this situation are cut by digging up small sections of them. Insulation is inserted into horizontal slots. The site is then buried, moving on to the next section of the wall.
- The penetrating type of waterproofing is a modern means of draining the walls of a cellar or basement. With its help, a layer of sealant is created inside the concrete. It crystallizes in the pores of concrete and impregnates it. Penetrating replaces horizontal and vertical. Such a composition is able to penetrate deeply (up to 50 cm) inside. A protective film does not form when coated, but the walls become waterproof for a long time.
If the basement is in a place with a high level of groundwater, then lower the water mirror. Only after that the walls are waterproofed inside the house.
There are two types of basements: with ventilation and without. To dry and ventilate the cellar with ventilation, the following algorithm is proposed:
- Experts advise making a homemade hood. Bring a pipe into the ceiling or wall and substitute a fan (supply and exhaust) to it.
- Sprinkle hygroscopic materials indoors. These include slaked lime and dry sawdust. Slaked lime is placed along the walls around the perimeter. She kills fungi with her vapors and collects moisture.
These tools make home-made ventilation more efficient, complementing it. In order for ventilation to work better in the cellar, they put a fan more powerful (placed on the exhaust pipe). In a few days, the fan will ventilate the room.
A small basement located in the house is provided with a closed grill with cells, vents or vents. They are installed in the basement of the foundation.
The total area of vents should be 1/400 of the entire area of the building.
If there is no possibility of installing specialized ventilation, they make thermal insulation of engineering networks and organize a homemade hood.
A complex approach
To get rid of the fungus, an integrated approach is used:
Room preparation and freeing up space. All items from the cellar must be removed. Take out furniture, racks and other unnecessary items. Products stored in the basement are inspected for fungus.
Important: If a fungus appears on the furniture, it is more convenient to clean it on the street. Wooden structures with fungus are best discarded.
The earthen floor in the cellar (if any) is cleaned, removing up to 20 cm of the top layer. Since the fungi take root deeply, removing the top layer of the earth on the floor is necessary.
In the fight against mold, experts advise using antiseptics with antibacterial and antifungal effects.
- Processing whiteness or other chlorine-based products.
- Citric acid in high concentration.
- Boric acid with salt.
- Sulfur Checker.
- Copper sulfate.
Important: after processing any kind, you need to leave the room and ventilate. As soon as the cellar disappears, create conditions that will not allow the new spread of the fungus.
Prevention of occurrence
To protect the room from mold, you must follow the rules:
- Regular treatment of the walls of the basement or cellar with an antiseptic and ventilation.
- Carry out waterproofing work. One reason for spore propagation is moisture.
- Equip the room with an air purifier with a non-filter.
- It is necessary to carry out regular cleaning of a room prone to mold. Wet areas are wiped with a dry cloth.
- If there is heating in the basement, it is better not to turn it off, since the growth of active spores occurs when the room is cooled.
- Unfinished items must not be left in the cellar susceptible to the appearance of fungus.
- In the corners of the room put containers with quicklime.
Important: only comprehensive compliance with preventive measures can avoid fungal reproduction.
Answering the question why disputes are often formed in the underground cellars of private houses, highlight the main thing:
- High humidity is the main reason. This problem is solved by drying and waterproofing.
- During construction do not pay attention to ventilation.
- Disputes live in dark places.
They fight microorganisms with folk methods and specialized means. The spore excretion period takes up to two weeks. For complete removal, the room is cleaned, ventilated and waterproofed. The process of disposal consists of a set of actions. Includes mold removal and prevention. It is removed by chemical or folk remedies, and prevention is the maintenance of the premises in a ventilated and dry form.