The basis for its writing was my own experience. Planting wild trees and shrubs near roads, plots, or on the plots themselves is not very popular in Russia. In Western Europe and America, large and small cities are buried in greenery, and there are more evergreen trees than deciduous trees. The published literature contains almost no information on transplanting wild plants. Over the past 10 years, I have planted more than 500 fruit and wild-growing trees and shrubs, all, with rare exceptions, have been accepted. Fruit planted on the site. Wild (50% of them are evergreen, mostly coniferous up to 3 m or more in height) both on the site (near the house, barn, canopy, paths, hedges) and on the street (from the outside of the fence or across the road). Of course, without prejudice to the sunlight of vegetable and berry crops.
Our site is located near Volokolamsk, in the collective garden partnership "Rainbow" Moscow Agricultural Academy. K.A. Timiryazev. I myself am an engineer, for 38 years I worked in the metrology department of the Radio Engineering Institute of the Academy of Sciences, for the past 10 years as the chief metrologist. When planting trees, first consulted with neighbors - teachers and researchers of the Academy. An engineer by profession, I could not help but show interest in wood as a cybernetic device, the knowledge of which, unfortunately, today is limited mainly to empirical experience. My point of view was fully supported by the assistant professor of TSAA A. D. Koshansky.
V. Merkulov (Moscow).
It is known that the movement of nutrients - salt solutions - from the soil to the tree occurs due to osmotic pressure (pressure in plant cells, depending on the concentration of salts). Inside the tree, the concentration of salts is higher than in the soil. In accordance with the laws of chemistry, the movement of a liquid solution always occurs in the direction of the solution with a higher concentration, that is, from the roots to the apex.
When a tree is transplanted from one place to another, a plant is dug out of the ground, transported and planted in a new place.
When digging up, part of the soil and roots are inevitably lost. A stressful tree spends accumulated nutrients at an accelerated rate, and the osmotic pressure inside it drops. The situation worsens transportation, especially long. If at the time of planting in a new place the concentration of salts in the tree is less than the concentration of salts in the soil, it will not take root and will dry out.
It turns out that for a successful transplantation, you need to dig a tree with a large lump of earth and less loss of roots. Transportation to a new place should be quick and, if possible, preserving the moisture of the coma and roots, which is why it is recommended to place the seedling in a damp cloth, preferably cotton, such as burlap, so that the roots breathe.
When transplanting, it is desirable that the living conditions in the new place do not differ from the previous ones. For planting a tree, a hole is enough, equal in volume to whom the earth is. To preserve the acidity of the soil and create better conditions for the osmotic pressure inside the tree, I do not put fertilizers, manure, leaves, grass, sawdust in the pit. Fertilizers during planting, in particular chemical ones, can burn the tips of the roots damaged by digging, and leaves, grass, sawdust can destroy the tree with organic acids, because if there is a lack of oxygen in the pit, it will take years to decompose. For the same reason, it is undesirable to dig a wooden stake as a support near a tree, it is better to use a neutral plastic pole, and even better a metal one.
In the event that the soil is less loose at the planting site, I make a pit of larger diameter for the roots to breathe better, and cover the space between the lump of earth and its edges with earth mixed with sand (approximately 40%). It is necessary to mix the ground with sand when planting seedlings with bare roots. When transplanting fruit trees to the bottom of the pit, I pour and mix lime with the earth at the rate of 70-100 g per 1 sq. Km. m
After planting, the tree first of all needs enough water, but without excess: one bucket at the time of planting and, on average, one bucket every 3 days for 1-1.5 months.
According to my observations, a tree or shrub is easier to accept when they are transplanted from soil saturated with nutrition to soil less saturated, with equal qualities. And much worse is the seedling when transplanting from soil, poor in nutrients, to rich.
Such a simple method of transplanting trees and shrubs, primarily wild-growing ones, with a height of up to 3 m or more does not require a lot of time and effort. In one hour, you can plant 5-6 or more trees, and at any time of the year, even in winter, but better in early spring, immediately after the snow melts. It is possible in the summer - preferably small trees with a large lump of land. True, in autumn, planting takes root worse, and so that they do not die, you have to regularly water them until the frost. One of the necessary conditions for survival at any time of the year: the lump of the land of the tree should be as large as possible, such as can be raised, moved and transported.
In a new place, wild-growing trees and shrubs take root quickly and require almost no maintenance. For better growth, I fertilize them, but not earlier than a year after planting, most often with water-soluble mineral fertilizers (20-30 g per 1 sq. M a year after planting, in subsequent years - 40-50 g per 1 sq. m).
In addition to nurseries, without prejudice to forests, wild trees for planting (with the knowledge of foresters) can be found under power lines, at the exclusion lanes of highways and railways, in quarries and other places where they are not needed and most often destroyed.
When to do a transplant?
Spring or fall is the best season for tree transplants. Sometimes trees are replanted in winter.
Spring transplantation should be carried out as early as possible, before the start of the processes of sap flow.
Autumn transplantation is recommended to be performed from mid-October to the end of November. The exact time depends on weather conditions: if it is warm and humid in the autumn, then it is necessary to transplant as late as possible so that the branch tissues can better prepare for winter. Transplanting trees in autumn has a very important advantage - by the onset of spring, the root system of the tree is already well adapted and ready “for work and defense”.
Winter transplantation is possible during the February thaw. At this time, snow is falling and the earth can be freely digged. Winter transplantation is recommended at air temperatures up to −15 ° С. Frozen soil is one of the disadvantages of working in the winter. It is hard to work with frozen soil; moreover, the roots of a tree may freeze if the frost is too great.
In case of emergency, the tree can be transplanted in the summer, but if time allows, it is better to wait until the fall.
Transplant with a lump
Transplanting with a lump is a time-consuming and reliable method. The reliability of the method is due to the fact that the suction roots of the coma do not disturb their location and do not lose contact with the soil.
For young trees, the diameter of the earthen coma in the upper part is in the range from 50–70 cm. For trees over the age of 5 years, the diameter of the earthen coma increases to 150 cm. The height of the coma is 60-70 cm.
Tree digging algorithm
- Watering the earth. The earthen lump will be less destroyed if you water the soil around the tree. It is recommended to pour 40-50 liters of water under the root before digging the tree.
- Digging a trench. After watering, a trench is dug around the perimeter of the tree, 30-60 cm deep, cutting off roots protruding beyond the diameter of the coma. Digging a trench Earthen coma packaging (when transported over long distances)
- Extracting a tree. The prepared earthen lump is carefully removed, supporting from below with garden tools and placed on film. The lump is wrapped with a film and tied over the root neck. The tree is lifted carefully so as not to destroy the earthen lump.
If the tree is to be transported, it is advisable to place it in sawdust in order to reduce the shaking of the monolith with the root system.
Preparing the landing site
Preparing a place to plant a tree consists in digging a hole of suitable size in diameter and depth. The pit should be 30-40 cm deeper and wider than a coma.
The bottom of the seat is lined with fertile soil. For these purposes, the upper layer taken from the surface of the pit will fit. In addition to the soil, 2 buckets of humus are poured into the pit, followed by mixing and tamping.
They try to plant the tree to the depth that it had before the transplant. The space that is left from the sides is covered with fertile soil mixed with humus, and a little tamped. After abundant watering, the soil sags and is supplemented from above to the optimum level.
At the end of planting, stretch marks are installed.
Tree transplant without an earthen coma
Transplanting without an earthen coma is much less labor-consuming, but choosing this method you should try to keep as many roots as possible intact.
The size of the landing pit should be slightly larger than the method described above. They fill the hole with pre-prepared soil with the addition of humus, in the amount of 4 buckets per 1 sq. m. The roots of the tree are covered with this mixture, making sure that the roots do not bend. Upon completion of backfilling, the tree is watered abundantly.
The orientation of the tree relative to the cardinal points, when transplanting, does not play a role and does not affect the further growth of the tree.
After transplanting a tree produce mulching the entire width of the root system. The thickness of the mulch layer is 10–12 cm. During spring planting, the mulch protects the roots from drying out, and in the autumn, from freezing. As a mulch, it is better to use humus, compost or peat.
If the tree is transplanted in autumn, it is advisable wrap stamb and the bases of skeletal branches with light dense paper or coated with water-based paint to protect the tree, weakened by the transplant, from sunburn and frost.
Transplanted tree pruning
Pruning after transplanting is similar to anti-aging - to 2-3-year-old wood in young trees and to 3-5-year-old in older adults. If the crown of the transplanted tree is formed poorly, then this pruning can be combined with the forming one.
To protect against fungal and bacterial infections and reduce the evaporation of water, it is important to cover all sections with a diameter of more than 1.5 cm with garden varnish or oil paint.
Transplant tree care
In the first year after transplanting, the tree requires constant monitoring. Also, one should not let it bear fruit, therefore flowers and ovaries need to delete.
Soil moisture is paramount, therefore a transplanted tree needs watering as needed.
In June, when the tree finally takes root, it should be fed nitroammofoskoy, in the amount of 3 handfuls, during watering. You can also feed with a 0.3% solution of urea, which can be combined with the treatment of plants with pesticides (for example, from aphids).
Be prepared for the fact that in the year of transplantation, the growth in the tree may be minimal. Starting next year, the plant will begin to grow normally and bear fruit.
How to transplant a large, large tree (krupnomer)
Having received the site, the newly-minted gardener seeks to plant everything at once. And more! But ten years pass, and the incorrectly planted apple trees turn into a forest. This is where the problem of choice arises: either an ax or a transplant. And the tree is already many meters long ...
Transplanting large-sized trees (that's what trees over 10 years old are called) without the appropriate technique is not an easy task at all. But with two or three pairs of hands possible. Dig a tree in a radius of 0.6-0.8 m from the trunk, chop off the roots. Then “hand-to-hand” (or a winch) lay the tree on its side (without lifting it!), Cutting the vertical roots by at least half a meter. Fill the formed hole flush with the surrounding soil. Then spread a tarp (or something similar) in this place. Turn the root lump onto the litter, turning the tree upright. And then drag your newcomer to a new place of residence by dragging.
My husband and I replanted trees in November - cherries at the age of 8 years and an apple tree at the age of 15 years. The place where they grew was shaded, and we decided to move them to the sun. The risk, of course, was. But as they say, who does not risk ...
Pits were prepared in advance, and deeper than those in which our trees were originally planted. Humus was poured into the bottom, always two shovels of clay (in our area there is no stagnation of water, and clay retains moisture), a little sprinkled with earth.
Trees were dug up - they dug at a distance of 80 cm from the trunk, long roots were chopped off. Barely dragged the "settlers" to a new place. They planted them 10 cm deeper than usual and made a depression like a bowl so that rainwater would flow directly under the trees. Finally, abundantly watered. It was in the last days of November. December turned out to be wet, sometimes it rained. Perhaps because of this, the trees did not hurt. They began to wait for spring.
What was our surprise when in the spring we saw swollen buds, and then abundant flowering - cherries and apple trees took root!
In the spring, in this “bowl” I watered an apple tree for 2-3 buckets, or even more, since it needed moisture so that the flowers would not fade. And in the summer, during fruiting, watered on dry days. Did it in the evenings. When setting and ripening fruits need moisture. I took water from a pond, we have it near the garden.
They worked, watered, and it took root. Seedlings benefit from water in hot summers - it is absorbed into the ground, moisturizing it abundantly, and everything around it grows. You just need to make sure that the puddle does not stand under the tree. If your site is too low, I advise you to drain at the bottom of the pit so that the roots do not rot.