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Expert advice: how to pass the exam in - biology by - 100 points

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Sections: Biology

Assessment of ZUN (knowledge, skills) is a comparison with the standard that exists, defined by the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. The highest level of teacher demand may remain at the standard level. And maybe higher and each teacher has his own. For example, the teacher evaluates the standard at “3”, above - “4”, even higher - “5”. Or maybe the standard is rated at "5", and the worst knowledge is at "4" and "3". The teacher has the right to choose the grade level (grading system).
Any system can be converted to a 5-point (or rather 3-point ("3", "4", "5").
A rating of "2" is more a statement of a lack of work, and you can invite the student to do it again.

The existing grading scale can be applied as follows:

It is especially useful to use this three-point system in junior and middle classes, when the child’s self-awareness and self-criticism have not yet been fully developed, and the “2” mark will simply discourage the desire to learn further. The following are proposed options for evaluating the various types of student work in the lesson and at home.

1. Biological dictation. The easiest way to check the homework of an entire class (one or more paragraphs). For a quick check, take five terms (easy to evaluate on a five-point system).
Dictating 1 term in 2 minutes will take 10 minutes. If the dictation is at the beginning of the lesson, then you can immediately verbally give the correct definitions, if at the end of the lesson, check later and fix it on the next lesson.
When checking notebooks are divided into 2 piles:

  • with more or less correct answers,
  • where individual work is needed.

All verification work is carried out in special notebooks, where all the student’s work is visible throughout the year. This notebook can be used for several years until it runs out.

2. Oral survey. Describe the structure of an animal or plant according to a table or diagram, indicate the functions that perform its individual parts.

  • “5” - completed the entire task correctly,
  • “4” - completed the entire task with 1-2 errors,
  • “3” - often made a mistake, completed only half the task correctly,
  • “2” - I couldn’t do anything correctly,
  • “1” - did not complete the task at all. (one)

3. Performing test tasks.
3.1. Tasks with a choice of answer (closed test), assignments "complete the offer" (open test) is estimated at one and two points, respectively. As a rule, it takes about a minute to complete one task with a choice of answer, and about three minutes to complete a free answer. An example of an open test: read the text, fill in the missing places. "In chloroplasts of green plants it is absorbed ..., secreted ... and formed ... only in the light. When plants breathe in the dark and in the light, it is absorbed ... and secreted ...» (3).
It is optimal to give 25 tasks in one control job:
(20 with a choice of answer and 5 with a free answer).
Evaluation criteria: “5”: 16 + 4 (80 - 100% of the total number of points)
«4»: 14 + 3 (70 - 75 %)
“3”: 12 + 0 or 10 + 2 (50 - 65%).
Options are possible here, so it’s better to focus on interest.
3.2. Differentiated test made up of questions at the level of “student must” (mandatory part) and “student can” (additional part). For example, the mandatory part consists of 15 questions for 1 point, and the additional part of 5 questions of an increased level of difficulty is 2 points. Total maximum 25 points.
Evaluation criteria: "2": the student scored less than 10 points
"3": completed 10 any tasks of the mandatory part
"4": 13 + 4 = 17 points or more
"5": 15+ 6 = 21 points or more.
You can make adjustments to the criteria, but you need to inform the students in advance of the criteria for evaluating their work. Using these recommendations in my work for several years, I can confidently say that children quickly get used to such an assessment. And if the teacher at the beginning of the test work forgets to specify the criteria, they themselves ask him about it and control their work.
The methodology for transferring a test score to a traditional five-point system can be as follows. Suppose a test consists of 20 tasks, each has 4 answer options, among which there is only one correct one. We calculate the guessing probability: it is equal to ¼, i.e. out of the 20 proposed tasks, the student can randomly guess 5. If the remaining tasks are divided into three equal parts, corresponding to positive ratings of "3", "4" and "5", then we get the distribution table:
2 points - from 5 to 8 correct answers (where 5 can be just guessed!)
3 points - 9-10 correct answers,
4 points - from 11 to 15 correct answers,
5 points - from 16 to 20 correct answers.
The disadvantage of this method is poor selectivity. The bad thing is that, say, a rating of "5" will be received by those who answered 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 points. For a more objective assessment, you need to build on the results of specific testing. In practice, it will look like this. We distribute the students' work into packs, each of which contains work with the same number of correct answers. The results are tabulated.

Score "2" "3" "4" "5"
In total, there were 9 packs or groups of students with a different number of correct answers. Divide this row in half. Division will be in the fifth group. Divide each half in half. We get 4 ranks corresponding to the ratings of "2", "3", "4" and "5". Then the 1st and 2nd groups get 2 points, the 8th and 9th - 5 points, the 3rd and 4th groups get a solid three, and the 6th and 7th groups - a solid four. There remains one controversial group - the 5th. There are 4 students in it. It is necessary to decide which of them put “4” and which “3”. The teacher can focus on the quality of the solved tasks, their complexity, etc. But I already practice a lot of double grades: 2/3, 3/4, 4/5. And I use this technique not only when checking written works, but also oral ones. Firstly, it speeds up the process of testing knowledge; one does not need to weigh for a long time how to evaluate the answer, if it is doubtful. Secondly, the accumulation of estimates increases, which is also important in large classes. Thirdly, this is an additional incentive for the student to receive another high mark, a kind of teacher trust, which most children want to justify! In the journal in the column "test" I put a higher score out of two, and next (before or after) a lower one.
We see that in the first method of assessment, academic performance is 90.6%, because only three students received deuces. The quality of knowledge will be equal to academic performance, which is clearly not true. When using the second method, deuces will be received by 5 students and academic performance is 84.3%, and the quality of knowledge is a maximum of 59.3%. (3) Draw your own conclusions! I tried both methods, and the first one I use when checking class or test-training tests, when the grade is not necessarily put in the journal, but is a guide for the student. When checking control papers on large topics, analyzing the final papers, it is advisable to apply the second method as a more accurate and fair one.
The final mark for performing verification work on the topic or for the year is set taking into account the quality of answers for each task, the total amount of points received for them. Therefore, criteria for evaluating each task are preliminarily developed and communicated to students. The student receives a satisfactory mark in the case when he scored half of the total number of points. Four is set in the case when the student scored from 50 to 70% of the points, and five - if scored more than 70%. Here, correction is also possible depending on the level of preparation of the class (its letter, program, etc.) (2)

4. Independent work in a notebook using a textbook.
Complete the tasks: a) is it possible to answer the question: what is the positive and negative value of protozoa in nature? Justify the answer.
b) fill in the table: "The value of unicellular animals"

c) * why these small, ancient, primitive animals - unicellular - have not died out yet and are not eaten completely by larger animals? (task of increased difficulty)
Your rating: “5” — completed all three tasks
"4" - completed the first and second task
"3" - correctly completed only half of the mandatory
parts of tasks (i.e. 1st or 2nd)
“2” - in each task there are a lot of mistakes (more than
right answers). (1)

5. Oral tasks with a free answer.
Considering that many schoolchildren do not speak well in writing, express their thoughts in a voluminous, often non-essential way, the teacher should offer questions that require an answer consisting of three to six phrases. During the current test of knowledge, it is important to analyze the answers of students in the classroom, pay attention to their shortcomings, show samples of the best answers, and exchange work for students to analyze them.
The same task can be performed with different depth and completeness, at the reproductive and creative levels. For example, in accordance with the requirements, students should be able to characterize photosynthesis and its role in nature. One student can define photosynthesis, name the initial and final products, note the role of chloroplasts in photosynthesis, its role in nature. However, he only reproduces knowledge. Another student, in addition to the above, talks about the processes occurring in the light and dark phases of photosynthesis, the structure of chloroplasts and granules, the placement of chlorophyll and enzymes on them, and the cosmic role of plants. The answer reveals deeper knowledge.
The response of the first student in accordance with the standard characterizes the lower limit of knowledge and therefore is assessed as a satisfactory mark. The second answer characterizes a higher level of student knowledge and is rated by a higher mark (2). But again, this is at the discretion of the teacher, based on the requirements of the program, school.

6. Compilation of a basic schematic summary (OSK)
Students are given the task of learning to “collapse” notes to individual words (phrases), to make schemes with the maximum number of logical connections between concepts. This work is extremely complex, individual. Assistance in the creation of USCs will be provided by the criteria for assessing USC.
Criteria for assessing USC by compilation:

  • The completeness of the use of educational material.
  • OSK volume (for grades 8–9 - 1 notebook page per section: for grades 10–11, one sheet of A4 format).
  • The logic of presentation (the presence of schemes, the number of semantic connections between concepts).
  • Visibility (the presence of drawings, characters, etc., accuracy of execution, readability of the OSK).
  • Literacy (terminological and spelling).
  • The absence of related sentences, only reference signals - words, phrases, symbols.
  • Independence in the preparation.

7. As a preparatory phase in grades 6-7 introduce students to syncwines (from a French word meaning five).
Sinkwain is a five-line poem. It allows you to state a large amount of information in short terms.
1st line - the name of the syncwine.
2nd line - two adjectives.
3rd line - three verbs.
4th line - phrase on the topic of syncwine.
The 5th line is a noun.

For example: 1. Photosynthesis.
2. Active. Useful.
3. Absorbs, forms, excretes.
4. The formation of sugar in chloroplasts of leaves in the light.
5. The process. (four).
I had only one experience in composing such verses in 6th grade, and I refused this in my work. I myself do not compose rhymes well; I do not really like poetry. And compiling syncwines is little familiar to Russians, and causes a lot of technical difficulties.

8. Examination of questions (give a detailed answer to the question).
Suppose three tasks are offered at an average level of difficulty and one task of increased complexity.

  • “5” - completed all tasks correctly,
  • “4” - completed all tasks, sometimes made a mistake,
  • “3” - often mistaken, completed only half of the tasks correctly,
  • “2” - I couldn’t do anything correctly,

“1” - did not complete the task at all. (one).
Each question of the expanded task can also be estimated in advance in points, then it is easier to determine if the teaching has done everything completely or only half. For example, the question “Forms of natural selection and their significance in evolution. Which form of SW is more common in nature? ” I rate as follows. For the transfer of the forms of EO 0.5 points (stabilizing, moving, disruptive). 0.5 points for a brief description of each form. And one point for expressing your opinion on the most common form and justification. Total 4 points. And so every question. When parsing errors, students immediately see their mistakes and shortcomings.

9. Criteria for evaluating the work of students in a group (team) in games of KVN, etc.

  • ability to distribute teamwork,
  • ability to listen to each other,
  • coordination of actions
  • correctness and completeness of speeches.
  • activity

10. Report after the tour, abstract on a given topic provides for independent work with additional literature. In addition to the ability to choose the most important and specific on the topic, it is necessary to evaluate the following:

  • completeness of the topic,
  • Are all tasks completed?
  • the presence of drawings and diagrams (if necessary),
  • accuracy of execution.

Each item is rated separately in points.
It is more convenient to arrange the results in a table. See appendix, table 1

11. Independent work - project (report) on a given topic
The control form is similar to the previous work.
Summing up all the above, we can say that the teacher can evaluate the work if he initially clearly set the goals and evaluation criteria.

Bibliography:

  1. Burtseva O.Yu. Approximate planning of educational material, “Biology at school”, 2000, No. 4,5
  2. Kalinova. G.S., Myagkova A.M., Reznikova V.Z. Monitoring the knowledge and skills of students, taking into account the requirements for their biological training. “Biology at school”, 2002, No. 3.4.
  3. Mash R. D. On tests and test verification. “Biology at school”, 1999.
  4. Kozlova O.G. Sinkwain. What is it ?, “Biology at School”, 2000, No. 5

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