Underground storage (outdoor or bulk cellar), buried in the ground completely or half, is an absolutely necessary element of a summer house. Choosing the most cost-effective option should be based on the vertical section of the site, the physical properties of the soil, the level of groundwater, and the possibility of floods.
The distance from the surface to high and ground waters is a determining factor for the type of cellar. More or less accurately, it is determined after heavy autumn rains. But it is being built in the summer. There is an exit.
Each district has maps of hydroisogypsum and hydroisopiesis. It is not difficult to obtain data on your site: if a summer cottage was designed, then it should be an application to the project. But with any standing water, the cellar is the most elevated place.
Sizes are selected based on the destination, the volume of loaded gifts of nature, products of their processing. The rational size is 2 x 3 m. For a family of 4 people, stocks, including potatoes, will be enough for the longest winter.
What to consider when designing a cellar
In order for the cellar, built and equipped with your own hands, to provide comfortable conditions for fruits and vegetables, you need to know how to properly make the cellar.
- Full temperature stability - regardless of the time of year - is achieved at a depth of about 3 m.
- Between the entrance and the stairs to the buried or half-buried cellar, a vestibule is necessarily arranged. Entrance is desired from the north side.
- Do not make a cellar near a large tree. Its roots are difficult to remove, ultimately they can destroy the walls of the basement.
- Wooden racks, drawers, pallets inside are the norm, since wood does not conduct heat and cold as fast as metal does.
- Circulation is the only way to resist the formation of stagnant zones of moist air, so the shelves should be at a distance of 3 to 8 cm from the walls.
- For all basements, the preferred floor - for proper thermal control - is rammed earth. Concrete is recommended for use with high standing water.
- A thermometer and a hygrometer are installed in each soil cellar (for measuring temperature and humidity, respectively). At the first time after the basement is launched, these indicators should be monitored, if possible, daily. This will help to quickly develop methods for maintaining the desired atmosphere inside.
- The temperature is usually controlled by forced ventilation: autumn nights are an excellent source of cold air to lower the temperature.
The entrance to the cellar can be top (through an opening in the ceiling) or side (through an extension). The doorway is installed horizontally, obliquely or vertically. The most ergonomic - with a lateral vertical entrance (cellar). The minimum area on the site, costs and time is the construction of a cellar-storage with an upper horizontal entrance.
A drawing of the future construction is necessary. As a basis, you can take your favorite project, posted on the Internet or from manufacturers of plastic cellars. And you can also look at the experience of neighbors: the vast majority of them will be happy to share their experience.
Cellar made of buta or brick
Traditional, centuries-tested natural materials. They allow you to create a cellar in the house with your own hands of any shape, up to arches and arches. The brick is used only red, well burnt, such as "Iron ore". Silicate brick is not used in underground construction.
The thickness of the walls is recommended to lay in a brick. When laying in half a brick, the sinuses between the soil and the masonry are filled with clay, followed by tamping. A brick partition perpendicular to long walls will reduce the pressure on the walls. Strengthen the masonry cement plaster.
A reliable design that will last decades and centuries is concrete. An unambiguous choice of this material is dictated by hydrographic conditions: a high level of groundwater, a tendency to waterlogging, meltwater in lowlands and on slopes.
A do-it-yourself cellar in the ground - a monolith - will not give a chance to the water that moves in the soil with free gravity to penetrate inside. Using reinforced concrete allows you to make a caisson from the cellar. In case of high water, it will remain dry.
To build a cellar with your own hands with a high level of groundwater from reinforced concrete is not an insurmountable task. The main thing here is to prepare a concrete mix of the required strength class. In such conditions, concrete B35 (M450) is used. It becomes impervious to water thanks to waterproofing additives.
Such additives can be purchased at any hardware store. They, in addition to the main function, several times reduce the time to set concrete strength, increase the strength itself. Concrete mix is ordered in mixers or prepared on site.
In complex soils, the wall thickness should not be lower than 100 mm. A good margin of safety gives such a scheme.
- Sex - 200 mm.
- Walls - 150 mm.
- Overlap - 100 mm.
This is the most correct cellar: even heaving soils are not afraid of it.
In areas with dry soils, concrete is also preferred. But the cellar in the country house with your own hands in this case is easier to do: you can use sand concrete with fiber reinforcement, and only reinforce the ceiling with reinforcement.
The walls of the cellar made of concrete blocks of the FBS type, road slabs, pile debris, and pillars worked well. There is no design component at the cellar, waterproofing will take a little longer.
Foam blocks or gas blocks for the cellar should be used only in dry soils. Brand - not lower than D 500 or D 600. The main disadvantage of these materials is the ability to absorb moisture. When freezing, a block saturated with water is destroyed.
Based on this, there is a need for high-quality waterproofing outside the walls. For its installation, a technological corridor along the outer walls of at least 0.7 meters is required. The costs of an enlarged pit and modern waterproofing materials will block the economic benefits from the purchase and masonry of such blocks.
The question of how to build a cellar disappears in this case. They are prefabricated from propylene 10 mm thick. Strength ribs and an internal metal frame give strength to the products. For soils saturated with water, external concrete pouring on the walls and ceiling is provided. The floor in the cellar can be wooden or concrete plastic.
The undoubted advantage is the complete internal equipment.
- Wooden staircase.
- Shelving with wooden shelves.
- Exhaust and forced ventilation.
- Moisture-proof lamp.
- Temperature and humidity sensors.
Of course, you can order individual equipment. There are a lot of plastic models, including budget ones. The main advantage of such a cellar tank is complete tightness.
You can build a cellar in the house with your own hands from such a tank in one day. The plastic cellar-underground with a horizontal entrance is compact; during operation it does not require treatment with antifungal compounds.
Eight steps to a good cellar
A full vision of how to build a cellar with your own hands step by step is half the success. This will avoid many mistakes. Typical of them: non-fulfillment of technological openings for ventilation, power supply, incorrect layout, errors in determining the level of the cellar, violation of the waterproofing scheme, etc.
The cellar in the country begins with a pit. It is most rational to arrange it with an excavator. Doing earthworks on your own is not only extremely time consuming, but also dangerous. SNiP 12-04-2002 expressly prohibits work in pits with loose walls. At a depth of: 1.0 m - in loose non-packed and naturally composed sandy soils, 1.25 m - in sandy loam soils, 1.5 - in loamy soils and clays.
In practice, hard plastic clays are often found, which cannot be taken with a shovel. Such walls will not slip into the pit even at a depth of 4 m. Nevertheless, it is necessary to know these numbers in order to avoid accidents.
Before making a cellar, the finished foundation pit is left at least for a day. This is necessary to control groundwater. When they appear, increase the depth to half a meter and lay greasy clay, followed by tamping. In dry soils they also make clay litter up to 15 cm and cover it with a layer of sand.
Building a cellar with your own hands in the ground without a foundation is not recommended. On the sand, a drainage layer of crushed stone is laid up to 15 cm. Crumpled clay is laid on it and only then is the tape or reinforced concrete slab no more than 10 cm thick.
At least one day later, bulk or roll waterproofing is arranged and the second layer of the slab up to 15 cm thick is poured. The foundation should protrude 10-20 cm outside the cellar.
When pouring or laying walls, the main thing is to comply with the thicknesses recommended above, the compliance of concrete, mortar and brick with the hydraulic properties of the soil. Modern additives allow water-repellent properties to be given to binders: they should not be neglected.
Masonry rules are similar to general construction. The only difference for rubble stone: the joints are thinner in order to prevent precipitation. There should be a blanket on the inside for better plastering.
The walls from the inside should be ironed with cement-sand mortar in a ratio of 1: 1 or 1: 0.5. Whitewashing is made with lime with the addition of copper sulfate.
You need to understand that a good cellar with your own hands is quite painstaking work. The result can be judged after the first winter. Dampness, condensation on the walls, and even water on the floor. ... As a rule, waterproofing fails. Troubleshooting is an extremely difficult task.
This is a mandatory operation: it depends on how long the cellar for vegetables and preservation will last. Traditional types - coating, roll and membrane - belong to the barrier types and are prone to damage during soil movements, are destroyed by large roots. They require amplification. To rule out errors, we recommend reading our detailed material on waterproofing in a cellar or basement.
The best quality cellar waterproofing is penetrating. It is made from the inside of the room. A special composition fills the pores and cracks of the wall material to almost the entire depth of the wall. In masonry forms a waterproof gel, crystallizes in concrete.
The most common mistake: a cellar in a private house is being built with violations of the waterproofing device technology. This is just the case when you should strictly follow the manufacturer's instructions and the conditions for applying a waterproofing coating.
With dry soils and low groundwater levels, stagnant waters can be a danger: sediments accumulate in the sinuses between walls and soil and create hydrostatic pressure. Insulation is necessary in this case as well. To prevent stagnation of water around the perimeter, a drainage groove is arranged.
Steps or stairs are one of the main elements of the basement: vegetables, fruits, preservation will be brought in and carried out along it. A person with buckets or a bag on his shoulders will not be able to climb or go down steps more than 200 meters high and treads less than 100 mm. Recommended width - from 0.6 to 1 meter. Slope from 30 to 45 °. The height of the passage is 2 meters.
The answer to the question of how to make a staircase to the cellar directly depends on its type. In cellars with a side entrance, concrete, brick, and cinder blocks are used as the material for the stairs. Basis - soil planned at the right angle. It is advisable to arrange a railing. A metal pipe 5 cm away from the wall will help a lot when moving with a load.
In cellars with a horizontal hatch, a wooden or metal staircase without risers is installed. A railing should also be provided, since the angle of inclination of such a ladder will be 60 - 75 °. To facilitate lifting, a goose step staircase is used.
It is made of wood, reinforced concrete, metal plates and beams, pouring concrete on the formwork. Wooden beams, boards must be cleaned of the remnants of the bark, antiseptic. Before laying, the supporting sections of the wooden structure are waterproofed with bitumen coating or roofing material with an overlap of at least 10 cm.
The wood for overlapping - due to its tendency to rot - has practically gone out of use. The most common cellar ceiling is a monolithic concrete slab with a reinforcing cage. Its thickness depends on the overlapped area, the thickness of the soil layer on top, but not more than 30 cm.
It is advisable to fill such a plate in one go with compulsory compaction with an internal vibrator or improvised means. After a full set of strength, the plate is isolated from moisture and heat: it is covered with bitumen, roofing felt with the subsequent laying of a polymer insulation or clay. A layer of soil and turf will complete the overlap.
Proper ventilation in the cellar is the key to preserving the crop. With the widespread distribution of sewer plastic pipes and bends to them (45 and 90 °) with a diameter of 100 mm or more, ventilation of the cellar with your own hands is not difficult.
The supply pipe drops 20 to 50 cm from the floor, the exhaust pipe draws moist warm air from the ceiling of the cellar. External exits are closed by fungi. To regulate the volume of air passed through pipes are equipped with valves or dampers.
How to make a cellar comfortable? Of course, hold the light. Cellar lighting is arranged only with waterproof lamps. Placement of sockets in the cellar is prohibited. The switch must be located either outside at the entrance, or in a residential building.
It is recommended to carry out internal wiring with the wire PR, PRG. Modern electronics will help turn on the lighting when moving in the cellar and turn it off after it is stopped.
In just eight steps, a plan is outlined for how to build a cellar with your own hands, basic concepts are given and typical errors are indicated. Elementary building skills, quality materials and the thoroughness of work are the key to success.
The advantages of a separate cellar for storing vegetables and types of structures
The storage located outside the house has its undoubted advantages. The main thing is the temperature regime. The home basement is always much warmer, which means there will be higher humidity. In such conditions, carrots and potatoes begin to shoot, and apples wither. In addition, mice and rats are eager for a warm home cellar. Another thing is a freestanding design. If done correctly, it is cool all year round.
If you have harvested, you can immediately lower it into the storehouse without bringing it into the house
Cons of such designs also have. In winter you will have to go out to get a jar of cucumbers. If the entrance to the cellar is swept with snow, you’ll have to wave a shovel.
The question naturally arises: how to organize the simplest cellar with your own hands so that it has a convenient entrance and optimal storage conditions for the crop in the form of vegetables and glass cans with home canned food?
There are three main types of structures that can often be found in summer cottages: cellars with a drainage cushion, classic underground cellars, semi-buried storage.
How to make a land cellar if groundwater is close
Similar structures are relevant for areas with a high level of groundwater. To avoid moisture penetration, the basement of the cellar is made on a high drainage pillow. To do this, sand, expanded clay or crushed stone is poured into a shallow pit (40-70 cm). Such a pillow guarantees dryness in storage. Moisture-proof coating is lined on top of the pillow, a reinforcing cage is placed and a concrete base is poured. After the cellar itself is built of brick or blocks. For reliable thermal insulation, experts recommend masonry with insulation. Mineral wool has proven itself in this regard. But you can replace it with sawdust, fine expanded clay or other filling material.
Important! If you use sawdust as a heater, they must be treated with copper sulfate or lime.
Outside, the walls of the cellar are protected by a moisture insulating membrane, and the roof is covered with metal or other roofing material. Roof space is also important to insulate qualitatively. The ideal option for making a do-it-yourself cellar with a private house is to fill up the whole structure with an earthen hill. In this case, the storage will have ideal conditions, of course, provided that the ventilation system is equipped.
The entrance to the cellar is best done sloping, so it will be convenient to go
Note! For waterproofing the cellars, you can use any kind of material: rolled, membrane, coating-mastic.
How to make a traditional underground cellar
Underground storage facilities are built quickly and, thanks to the special heat-insulating properties of the soil, never fail their owners. If there are no problems with the groundwater level on the site, then this is the best choice for storing vegetables.
For an earthen cellar, you need to dig a pit with a slight slope of the walls to the outer edges. Such expansion is necessary so that the soil does not crumble over time. Дополнительно следует укрепить стенки дощатой обшивкой.
Совет! Если вы обшиваете стенки погреба деревом, сделайте обшивку разборной. В этом случае можно будет летом просушить доски на солнце. So they will not be mold and rot.
To maintain dryness in the underground storage, you also need to arrange the floor on a sand and gravel pillow.
The ceiling is sewn up with boards and a layer of compacted clay and earth is laid on top of them at least half a meter thick. Around the cellar make a ditch at least 40 cm deep to divert water.
Semi-buried brick or block cellar
Another model of a summer cottage is semi-buried. As you already understood from the name, this is a cross between an earthen and aboveground structure. The walls of such structures are made of brick or blocks, the store itself is about half the height recessed into the ground.
As in the first two cases, it is important to properly waterproof the basement and walls of the cellar and equip the ventilation system
How to choose a suitable storage
The main criterion for choosing the type of structure is the level of groundwater occurrence. If the site is regularly flooded in the spring or located in marshy areas - do not hesitate to choose a ground structure.
If there are no problems with flooding, and the site is located on a plain - build a semi-buried structure. And the pit will not have to dig deep, and it will be convenient to use the cellar.
How to quickly and efficiently make a cellar in the ground with your own hands
The main thing in the construction of the repository is to choose the right location. It should not be too far from home so that you do not have to carry cans and bags of vegetables far away. For digging a foundation pit, it is important that the soil is not rocky. It is undesirable to put the storehouse near garden trees - you will damage the roots during the construction, and then these same roots will destroy the walls of your cellar in retaliation.
Do it yourself step-by-step instructions on how to equip an underground cellar in a summer house
And now we will consider the process of arranging the cellar in more detail.
|Make a markup for the future cellar, based on the size of the concrete slabs (if you intend to use them). In addition, the storage chamber itself needs to be marked out and the place for descent into it.|
|Dig a pit, making a slight inclination of the walls, as we recommended above.|
|The sloping entrance should be approximately 1.2 m wide and 4.5 long. The slope for easy descent is 30-35 ºС.|
|Fill a sand and gravel pillow, lay on it a waterproofing, reinforcing mesh and fill in the concrete floor.|
|In the process of arranging wall formwork, immediately lay down the ventilation pipes. Pipes should be placed on opposite walls at different heights.|
|Install wall reinforcement and formwork around the entire perimeter of the vault, including the entrance area.|
|Lay the fittings in advance in the places where the steps will be located.|
|Pour concrete around the entire perimeter of the store. Wait until it becomes and remove the formwork. In this process, rush is not needed;|
|It is time to decide how to block the cellar. Lay concrete slabs on the roof and cover them with waterproofing mastic. If you do not plan to use plates - make formwork and reinforcement for filling.|
|Insulate the storage ceiling with a foam or other reliable heat insulator.|
|To preserve the heat insulator, cover it with water protection and fill up the soil layer from above. A self-made cellar lid is exceptionally reliable.|
|As a result, you will get such a warm and comfortable cellar in which your products will be completely safe.|
Some nuances in the arrangement of the ventilation system of the cellar
An important factor in the normal functioning of the storage is ventilation. Without it, the cellar will always be damp, the wooden lining and shelves will be covered with mold, the lids of the cans will be rusted, and the vegetables will rot.
The ventilation system consists of a fresh air intake pipe and a channel through which air will leave this room. The easiest way is to take two plastic pipes of large diameter (about 15 cm) and place them as follows: the inlet to the supply pipe should be located half a meter from the floor, and an exhaust opening should be placed on the opposite side under the ceiling.
Important! The exhaust and supply pipes must not be placed at the same height.
The upper edge of the ventilation pipes must be protected with a cap from rain. It will be useful to install in the pipes mesh barriers from rodents.
How to make a land cellar in the country with your own hands: step by step
The thicker the walls of the ground cellar - the better it will maintain the optimum temperature. Step-by-step construction of a cellar with your own hands will look as follows.
|As in the first case, you need to make markup. Dig a shallow foundation pit, make a gravel pillow for waterproofing.|
|Lay waterproofing material and reinforcing mesh on the bottom of the pit. Fill in the concrete base.|
|After the foundation is established, begin masonry.|
|As you build the walls, protect them from the outside with a waterproofing film. Use roll material.|
|When the height of the cellar is sufficient, lay the metal profile or flat slate as the base for pouring.|
|To close the cellar with your own hands, install a reinforcing mesh and fill the cellar roof with concrete.|
|Make an entrance zone and steps, cover it all with a roof.|
|Cover the structure with earth for better thermal insulation. A self-made bulk cellar will be your reliable assistant.|
How to make comfortable shelves with your own hands in the cellar: photo examples
The storage system in the cellar should have shelves for cans and boxes for storing vegetables. What can be made of shelves and drawers in the cellar - a question that becomes key at the time of completion of the finished structure.
The simplest and cheapest option for storing vegetables is plastic perforated boxes. They have special grooves, thanks to which you can put them one on top of the other. Shallow, they provide good ventilation, so necessary for vegetables and fruits. If desired, the fruits in such boxes can be sprinkled with shavings or sawdust, pre-laying newspapers so that the filling does not wake up in the openings of the boxes.
You can’t put much in such a box, which means that if necessary it is easy to rearrange it or even just take it to the house
You can store vegetables in large wooden boxes. But you’ll have to periodically sort through the entire box to remove the spoiled fruits, and getting them when the box is almost empty will not be very convenient.
It is better to place pickles, sauerkraut and other starter cultures in sealed plastic barrels.
Wooden tubs are also good, but they are not eternal, and they need special care
And finally, shelves. You can make them from wood or steel. In any case, they must be stable, attached to the walls and be strong enough to withstand heavy weight. Keep in mind: a three-liter jar with home preservation weighs approximately 4.5-5 kg. So estimate, if you put on the rack in 10 cans in 2 rows - then this is already 100 kg.
The best option is a metal frame and false wooden shelves
The metal frame will ensure the strength of the structure, you do not risk accidentally breaking the jar by installing it on a wooden surface. Boards can be set in the sun in the summer so that they dry properly
Important! The material for the shelves in the cellar must be carefully processed to protect against rot and corrosion. Wood needs to be proliferated, and metal must be painted.
What are ready-made cellars for summer cottages and features of their installation
Large plastic caissons can be used as a finished construction for the cellar. The volumes of such structures are thousands of liters. They are made of durable plastic, have stiffening ribs. Such cellars come with a side or vertical entrance. Here you can install a ventilation system. Such caissons can be dug into the ground, even if the water level is very high.
Designs are completely tight. The walls of such cellars are easy to clean; rodents and insects do not penetrate into them.
The disadvantage of plastic cellars is their more than decent cost. The bunker itself will cost about 65 thousand rubles. And if you will put it, involving hired workers, then this is another 40 thousand on top. Why so expensive? The fact is that with a high occurrence of groundwater, the caisson squeezes out of the ground. Correct installation involves the installation of a concrete substrate. In addition, installing a ventilation system in a plastic box is not an easy task, you will have to invite a professional. Another difficult point is the installation of shelves for storage. It is difficult to fix them to walls or floors without violating the integrity of the caisson. You will have to prepare special struts, and at the same time the design of the racks will not be particularly reliable. So it turns out that only boxes of potatoes can be stored in such a cellar. 100-120 thousand - a little expensive for such purposes, agree.
In order for you to imagine the front of work, a short video:
That is why it is easier and more reliable to build a cellar from traditional materials. What do you think about this? If you know how to build a cellar and are ready to share your own experience - write to us in the comments!
Varieties and features of cellars
Do not confuse the cellar and basement. Do-it-yourself construction of a cellar in a country house can be reduced to simply digging a hole and minimizing its arrangement. The choice of the type of structure depends on many parameters, for example, on its intended purpose, on the climatic conditions of the region, financial capabilities, etc. Also, when choosing the type and materials for building a cellar in the country house, you need to take into account its location.
It is easier to erect a separate building than, for example, to build a cellar under a house, but this option will require more materials, and hence finance. Making a storehouse under a residential building or an outbuilding will cost less, but this option is limited in space.
The arrangement of the cellar will allow for a long time to preserve preservation and other products
One of the most popular options is the glacier cellar. It copes with the function of long-term food storage even in the hot season and is especially in demand in the southern regions. It is quite difficult and expensive to build this type of cellar in a private house with your own hands, but the result is characterized by high performance, durability and reliability.
Another good option for this building is a storehouse of two sections. Typically, this type is used when you need to avoid mixing the smells of various vegetables and fruits, which are simultaneously stored in the cellar. To build such a storage facility, less materials are needed than for a glacier.
A separate type of cellar is wine. It is used to store wine products, has its own design features and nuances that must be taken into account in order to carry out the correct construction of the cellar. As a rule, in such a storage you can store not only wine, but also various preservation.
The wine cellar has design features that must be taken into account at the construction planning stage.
The nuances of arranging a cellar with your own hands at a high level of groundwater
When choosing a place for storage, it is very important to take into account factors such as total soil moisture and groundwater level. The lower it is, the easier it will be to build the structure, and less likely to need repairs. If we are talking about a separate building, then it is worth choosing the highest place on your site. It is best to determine the level of groundwater when it is maximum, that is, in spring or autumn. If there is a well or a well on the site, then you can determine the maximum mark from them, otherwise you will have to drill the well separately.
A little more difficult will be the construction of the cellar, if near groundwater. How to do it as efficiently as possible? First of all, much attention needs to be paid to the waterproofing of the structure. Also, with increased soil moisture, for better waterproofing the cellar from groundwater, it is worthwhile to use building materials characterized by increased resistance to water. In this case, you should not use wood or plywood, but rather give preference to concrete and brick.
The layout of the separately located cellar: 1 - foundation, 2 - steps, 3 - protective fence, 4 - walls, 5 - ceiling vault, 6 - ventilation, 7 - waterproofing, 8 - bulk soil
Helpful advice! You can check the groundwater level according to folk signs. To do this, leave a piece of wool and a chicken egg at the construction site, and cover them with a clay pot on top. If in the morning there will be dew on both the wool and the egg, then the groundwater is close, and if only on the wool - far.
Do-it-yourself recommendations for building a cellar: how to do it as efficiently as possible
Regardless of which type of structure you have chosen or what materials you intend to use, there are a number of general recommendations that you should follow when building a cellar with your own hands:
- if you intend to use wooden elements, they must be pre-treated with special impregnation to protect against the harmful effects of moisture,
- The construction of the cellar is best started in the summer, then the groundwater level is at the lowest level. In this case, the soil will be the driest, and the risk of flooding the structure will be minimal,
- to ensure efficient storage of products, it is very important to think through a ventilation system,
- if you want the structure to maintain the desired temperature, it is recommended that when building the cellar do it yourself do two doors separated by a vestibule,
To build a really good cellar, you need to carefully study the characteristics of materials and types of structures
- special attention should also be paid to thermal insulation, then the optimal temperature in the cellar will be provided at any time of the year,
- the choice of tools and materials for construction is very important, so you should familiarize yourself with the advantages and disadvantages of various types in advance. The construction itself must be carried out in a clearly recommended order.
Features of using various materials
Most often, materials such as brick or concrete blocks are used in the construction. They best tolerate high humidity and low temperatures, and are also characterized by durability, reliability and relatively low cost. When building a brick cellar with your own hands, it is worth considering the features of the operational characteristics of each of the varieties of this material:
- cinder block or foam brick is characterized by increased fragility, therefore, these varieties are not recommended for use in the construction of underground storage,
- silicate brick is more durable, but it reacts very poorly to high humidity. This means that the construction of it will not be able to boast a long service life,
The ideal material for the construction of the walls of the cellar is red brick
- red brick is ideal for a cellar in a private house. How to make the construction of this material as efficient as possible, you can learn from the numerous step-by-step instructions from specialists.
If you decide to use concrete blocks when building, then you definitely need specialized construction equipment, since they are characterized by a large weight. The cellar will last a long time and will keep the temperature well.
Also, when building a cellar in the house with your own hands, you can use a brick that was already in use, if its condition allows. And in the event that you are going to simply sheathe an earthen hole with wooden boards, they must be carefully treated with antiseptics to prevent rot.
Note! The use of concrete slabs reinforced with metal is also possible. But in this case, it will be difficult to maintain the desired temperature, so this material should not be used for the building in which you are going to store the products.
Layout of a semi-buried brick cellar
Sod is removed from the selected site, after which the land is leveled and marking is performed. Many do-it-yourself photos of the cellar show that specialized construction equipment is often used to equip the pit, but if this is not possible, you can use shovels and spades. The advantage of working with a hand tool is that it allows you to save the structure of the soil. If the earth in the selected area is loose, then the walls of the pit should go downhill to avoid shedding.
DIY cellar construction. Step 1: Digging a Pit
The dimensions of the cellar depend solely on your needs, but remember that the size of the pit should be 0.5 m larger than the size of the structure itself. In the process of how you build a cellar with your own hands, the excavated fertile land can be distributed over the summer cottage. The flatness of the bottom after completion of work must be measured with a level and corrected, if necessary.
Хотя без этого этапа можно и обойтись (просто засыпав дно котлована щебнем или залив битумом) обустройство фундамента позволит повысить уровень гидроизоляции погреба от грунтовых вод. Как сделать фундамент максимально эффективным, но не особо дорогим? Для этого можно использовать армирующий каркас, поверх которого заливается бетонная смесь. The recommended height of the foundation is about 40 cm. Installation of the foundation is a prerequisite for the construction of a cellar in the cottage with your own hands, if groundwater is close. How to make the foundation correctly - tell thematic videos on the Internet.
DIY cellar construction. Step 2: arranging the foundation
DIY cellar ceiling installation
When building a ceiling, it is best to use wooden planks. If the structure is being built under the house, then you can use beams as the ceiling, and the ceiling of the land cellar in the country house with your own hands is step-by-step made from PKZh or slate plates. The surface may be flat or gable.
The thermal insulation of the ceiling is done according to the same principle as the thermal insulation of a conventional roof - the gap between the wooden beams and the roofing material is filled with a layer of thermal insulation.
DIY cellar construction. Step 4: installing the ceiling
Types and features of floor installation in the cellar
There are many different options for arranging the floor in the cellar, which is better - depends on your preferences, the purpose of the building, the characteristics of the soil and other factors. You should also familiarize yourself with the specifics of each method in advance, this will help to quickly and efficiently build a cellar with your own hands. Both video and photo instructions can greatly facilitate the installation process.
Earthen floor - The easiest and cheapest option. There is a misconception that the correct floor in the cellar should only be earthen, but this is not so. Even a well-compacted soil will not protect the room from moisture and mold.
If you still decide to make an underground floor in the cellar, then the base must be carefully leveled and tamped, after which a layer of gravel about 10 cm thick is poured. The advantage of this option is the zero installation cost, but there are much more disadvantages. These include a high risk of flooding and a high likelihood that metal elements will rust and wooden elements will rot.
Cellar with bulk sand floor
Concrete floor - A good option to protect the room from high groundwater. Concrete screed can act not only as a floor covering, but also as a basis for the installation of other materials.
For the construction of a concrete floor, it is very important to level the surface, after which a pillow of crushed stone and sand with a thickness of 15-20 cm is mounted. The sand must be carefully moistened and tamped, and pour bitumen on top. In order to make the concrete base as strong as possible, a metal grill can be installed on top of the bitumen layer. After that, you can start pouring concrete.
You can mount a waterproofing layer both on a sand cushion and on top of concrete. In the second case, another concrete layer must be poured on top.
Clay floor - reliable, but very time-consuming in terms of installation option. It requires a large amount of high-quality material, so it is rarely used. Clay is considered one of the most environmentally friendly materials. It is laid on a base of crushed stone with a thickness of 10-15 cm, which can be impregnated with bitumen. For clay, it is worthwhile to mount a waterproofing layer of roofing material or other material, and cracks that may form after drying are closed with a clay-lime mixture.
The floor in the cellar, built with his own hand, is equipped with concrete
Brick coating - strong, durable and characterized by attractive appearance. In addition, the material is quite cheap and easy to install. The brick floor is laid on a pillow of fine gravel or gravel, a solution of clay is poured on top. Bricks are slightly recessed into the mortar close to each other. Also, cement mortar can be hammered into the joints between bricks with a stiff brush.
Wooden floor - used in ground-based versions of the cellar or where groundwater is located very deep. Before installation, the tree must be treated with special impregnations to extend the service life. Wooden boards are mounted on top of logs made of timber, which, in turn, are laid on the base of crushed stone and clay. It is best to screw boards with self-tapping screws, but you can simply nail them with nails.
Note! For each of the materials you will need a separate set of tools, the acquisition of which is better to attend to in advance.
An example of a ventilation device: 1 - for a cellar under the house, 2 - for a separate cellar
Design and installation of ventilation systems
If you are building a ground structure, the air can flow into the cellar naturally through small openings. For underground construction, ventilation should be supply and exhaust. The exhaust pipe outlet should be located near the ceiling, and the suction pipe should be near the floor. Many photos of the cellar in the country house do-it-yourself show that the ventilation outlet openings are equipped with special curtains, this allows you to more accurately control the temperature in the room.
Installation of stairs and doors
If the cellar is being built under the house or, if necessary, save space, it is worth making an almost vertical staircase to the cellar with your own hands. How to make it as safe as possible for the descent? Handrails are recommended. Photos of the stairs to the cellar with their own hands show, then it can be built from wooden boards fixed directly in the ground, as well as from brick or other materials.
Doors are mounted in ground-based versions of the design, in other cases a hatch is used. Making a hatch in the cellar with your own hands is quite simple.
Cellar staircase layout
Manufacturing the hatch
If the cellar is located under a house or outbuilding, then a hatch is used as an entrance wall. You can buy a hatch for the cellar, or you can do it yourself. The second option allows you to get a design that exactly matches your needs. Self-assembly of the hatch includes the following steps:
- a place is chosen for future entry. It is very important that access to it is as simple as possible and not cluttered with shelves, drawers and other items,
- the dimensions of the hatch are determined. It all depends on your needs, but its parameters should not be less than 75x75 cm. In order for the room to be airtight, the side faces of the hatch must be sheathed with a sealant,
- a manhole cover is made in the cellar. How to make it light and durable? To do this, it is best to use wooden boards soaked with varnish. They are interconnected by slats, and on one side of the lid a sheet of plywood is nailed. If we are talking about a cellar in a residential building, then the top of the manhole cover can be sheathed with the same floor covering as the floor around it. It should be borne in mind that if it is planned to equip the hatch for the cellar under the tile, its design should be made of sufficiently durable materials that can withstand all ceramics. If you prefer to use steel, then for the lid you will need a sheet with a thickness of at least 3 mm, which is welded to a metal frame,
Cellar hatch scheme
- the handle is attached. The best option is a special hidden or folding design. If the cellar is located in a non-residential building or there is a need to save money, then you can use the usual door handle,
- hinges are screwed. It can be ordinary door hinges or car hinges with springs. The latter option will make it easier to open the lid and fix it in any position.
There are many answers to the question of how to make a hatch in the cellar with your own hands, so you should choose the option that is most suitable in your particular case.
Wiring and lighting
Due to the fact that the design of the cellar provides for increased humidity, the wiring in it must necessarily be reliably insulated. The best option for wiring are copper wires with a double layer of insulation. Bulbs should be placed in the driest places and additionally equipped with protective caps. It is strictly forbidden to make sockets during the construction of the cellar. How to make the wiring as safe as possible can be seen on the training videos from specialists.
Bulbs in the cellar must be placed in dry places and must be equipped with caps
Installation of waterproofing in the cellar
As already mentioned, isolation from moisture is a very important point in the construction of a cellar in the country with your own hands. How to make waterproofing the most effective - there are a lot of options, and the choice of the optimal one depends on the level of soil moisture and structural features of the building.
Waterproofing can be external or internal. External is done at the construction stage, while the walls are sheathed from the outside with insulating materials, and gutters, drainage wells and other structures are mounted. Internal insulation is done after the cellar is built. In this case, before using insulating materials, groundwater should be diverted, otherwise the work will be ineffective.
Types of materials used for internal waterproofing
If you made a cellar in the country with your own hands made of waterproof concrete, then you are unlikely to need additional cladding with insulating material. But for a brick structure, you can use the following waterproofing options:
- mastic or bitumen - used in cases where the groundwater level is below the floor. The solution is heated and applied in a thin layer to the walls, as a result of which a reliable waterproof film is formed,
Membrane type waterproofing material
- penetrating waterproofing is the most expensive, but also the most effective option. It is good because it increases not only the level of moisture resistance of the walls, but also their frost resistance. The penetrating waterproofing also reliably closes all cracks and micropores, is characterized by a long service life and is quickly mounted,
- cement-based polymer solution - is one of the most reliable and easy to apply materials for waterproofing. It adheres tightly to the walls and reliably protects them from mechanical damage,
- membrane type waterproofing - consists of various polymers, among which liquid rubber based on bitumen is very popular.
Note! The presence of effective ventilation is very important for reliable waterproofing of the cellar in the country with your own hands. How to build a ventilation system so that excess moisture does not condense in the storage? For this, the installation of a supply and exhaust system is best suited.
Scheme of the device for heat and waterproofing the cellar
Installation procedure for waterproofing
Numerous photos of the cellar in a private house show that waterproofing can be hidden under decorative wall panels. This is not a prerequisite, but only affects the appearance of the walls. The nuances of installing a waterproofing layer depend on the type of material selected.
Do-it-yourself waterproofing using bitumen or mastic for the walls of the cellar under the house is usually not difficult. To do this, you need to plaster the walls first, and the waterproofing itself is best applied in two layers. Before the final drying of the coating, it is recommended to sprinkle it with fine dry sand.
Before installing penetrating waterproofing, the surface of the walls must be thoroughly cleaned of dirt and dust, then moistened with water. After applying the insulation layer for several days, it also needs to be constantly moistened. Concrete walls before installing penetrating waterproofing are treated with a metal brush.
One of the most effective moisture protection options is penetrating waterproofing.
To apply liquid rubber, the walls must be leveled and cleaned. After that, the surface is primed and a waterproofing material is applied to it with a brush, spatula or roller. Finishing materials can be mounted directly on a layer of liquid rubber after it dries. In the photo of the wine cellars, for example, it can be seen that the walls are sheathed with wooden panels.
The cement-polymer mixture is applied to well-moistened walls with a notched trowel or brush. It is best to do this in several layers.
Do-it-yourself shelving in a cellar: photos and instructions
Shelves and racks are integral elements of any cellar and basement. There are several types of racks for the cellar, which you can buy in specialized stores, but it is much easier and more economical to do them yourself. The most popular options are as follows:
- wooden shelving is one of the most common answers to the question of what to make a shelf in the cellar. The material is environmentally friendly and easy to use, and for shelving it is best to use a bar with a cross section of 100x100 mm and a board 3-4 cm thick. The installation diagram is very simple - racks are made from a bar in which the nests for fixing the shelves are sawn. In order for the wooden shelves to last longer, they are impregnated with special compounds,
Installation dimensions of a wooden cellar rack
- concrete shelving is a good option if you want to know how to make shelves in the cellar as durable and resistant to moisture as possible. To create concrete shelves, you can use reinforced concrete slabs or niches in the walls, which are poured with concrete screed,
- shelves from a steel corner - are used in rooms with a low level of humidity, otherwise designs can very quickly begin to rust. In order to make a shelf in the cellar for cans, as a rule, a welding machine is used, but you can do with simple self-tapping screws. First, frames are made of metal battens, then shelves are attached to them,
- plastic shelving is one of the most economical and simplest options, which is distinguished by its attractive appearance and resistance to moisture. However, plastic does not tolerate very low temperatures, so it cannot boast of durability.
Helpful advice! When wondering how to make a shelf in a cellar with your own hands, and what material to choose for this, consider the level of humidity in the room, as well as the average weight of the cans and boxes that will be stored on the shelves. Concrete perfectly withstands even a very large load, but plastic can not boast of this.
Wooden shelves are arranged along the walls of the cellar
Of the same materials, you can make potato boxes in the cellar. As a rule, they are equipped with removable covers, which are installed if necessary. Regardless of which material you choose, in the warmer months, shelves and drawers are recommended to be taken outside for drying. This will prevent the occurrence of mold and the multiplication of pathogens.
When the construction and internal arrangement of the cellar is completed, you can think about the external decoration of the ground structure. Its option depends solely on your preferences - you can just pour an earthen hill, or you can decorate it with turf or decorative grass, turning it into an element of landscape design. Use video and photo instructions during the construction of the cellar with your own hands, which will help to take into account all the nuances and equip a practical and functional room.