Freesia is a stunningly beautiful bulbous plant of the Iris family. In addition to beauty, the flower has a delicate pleasant aroma, slightly reminiscent of the smell of lily of the valley. That is why the plant is very popular with perfumers.
Florists often use it as a bouquet decoration. Despite the fact that Africa is the birthplace of the flower, it can also be grown on a garden plot in a temperate climate. To do this, you need to know how to plant freesia.
Freesia - description and types of plants
Freesia is a perennial plant, a distant "relative" of irises. Almost any color of flowers is found: from white to purple or blue.
The variety of shades is simply amazing. The height of the plant can reach up to half a meter. The flowers form inflorescences, the diameter of one flower is on average about five centimeters.
The leaves of the plant are thin, long, oblong, bright green in color. After flowering, seeds are formed.
There are more than twenty varieties of freesia obtained by breeders by crossing several species that grow in their natural habitat.
The most common and available for independent breeding varieties at present are the following types of freesia:
Freesia Armstrong. It is characterized by a height of up to one meter, a bright color of the flower, mainly red or orange, as well as plentiful and persistent flowering in June.
Freesia is broken. A low plant, not more than half a meter tall. Pastel flowers, muted shades of white or orange. This species blooms quite early in April.
Freesia is hybrid. It was developed by crossing two of the above colors and combines their best characteristics.
Plants reach a meter in height, have a bright color, inflorescences are formed from many large flowers. It serves as the basis for many varieties of freesia, for example, red Lyon, Royal Ball, Terry, Ballerina.
Such a variety of varieties of freesia can satisfy the most demanding taste of any grower.
Where can I grow freesia
It must be remembered that freesia is a tropical plant, so the cold climate is not too suitable for it. However, gardeners and flower lovers can plant and grow this plant on their own in the open ground or at home.
Outdoor cultivation. For planting flowers, you need to choose a warm place without drafts, on the sunny side of the site, but not under direct scorching rays, but in partial shade.
A great option would be to plant freesia next to a taller plant, which will cover it from direct sunlight.
The soil in the selected place needs to be prepared, namely: loosening, weeding, fertilizing with fertilizer.
Growing Freesia in a Pot
It is advisable to carry out a small prophylaxis against bacteria and parasites, for this the soil is well shed with a solution of potassium permanganate.
At home. Houses grow freesia for the sake of early or winter flowering. In order for the flowers to please their flowering in the winter on the windowsill, you need to carefully prepare the place for planting.
A pot for plants should be taken at least fifteen centimeters in diameter. Before planting the bulbs, it is advisable to disinfect it with a solution of potassium permanganate or wash with laundry soap.
Expanded clay is laid at the bottom of the prepared pot, the soil is poured, and a little fertilizer is added. The size of the container is due to the fact that four to seven bulbs are planted in one pot at a certain distance from each other.
At home, growing a flower is much easier than in an open-air garden. You can independently control the temperature, lighting, humidity.
Most Popular Views
The International Database lists 16 species and about 200 varieties of freesia. More often than others grow such.
Freesia armstrongii - Armstrong. It blooms in May and June. Endowed with well-branched peduncles. Pink and red flowers.
Freesia refracta - Broken. The most compact of freesias (up to 0.4 m high) and the earliest flowering. Inflorescences look fluffy due to closely sitting white or golden-orange flowers.
Freesia hybrida - hybrid, obtained from crossing f. refracta and f. Armstrongii. Larger and brighter than the parent species, a highly branched plant grows up to 1 m. The flowers are large, the inflorescences are large.
Varieties with double and semi-double flowers are bred. The color of inflorescences is diverse - white, yellow and others. Often grown as a potted plant.
What you need to pay attention to
Before you get freesia, it is useful to learn about its features:
- the flower is grown at home in a pot, in open ground, or in a greenhouse,
- Freesia dug in autumn can be grown in winter as an indoor flower,
- home plant can bloom at any time of the year , for this, before the next planting of the corm, she needs to provide a 3-month dormancy period; the bulb planted in October will give a luxurious flowering bush by January,
- plant likes warm but not hot ,
- you need a very bright, but sun-protected place,
- fragile leaves and peduncles support needed ,
- freesia needs top dressing, moistening the soil and air, but with their excess, the green mass grows, and flowering does not occur.
With improper care, freesia refuses to bloom, so you need to carefully observe the rules of agricultural technology.
Freesia outdoor cultivation and care
Freesia, in early autumn, attracts not only a bright color of flowers, but also a delicate aroma hovering over this perfection. A charming and sophisticated flower that speaks of serene tranquility. This quality is characteristic only of youth. On a thin stalk, 9-11 large up to 7 cm in bloom in bloom. To admire the divine plants, you must have them under the window. Freesia cultivation and care in the open field will not greatly complicate you, and you will give a lot of pleasure.
Freesia refers to bulbous flowers, with long, narrow, bright green leaves. Flowers have the shape of a funnel of different colors, it can be purple or white, orange or cream, blue or yellow. Flowers are arranged in groups on bends that are thin as wire. Formed on the one hand, have a strong aroma. They can have a simple or terry form.
Freesia includes 6 species of iris flowers. It grows in nature in Africa, this is its homeland. Flowering time depends on when the plant was planted. Usually, the flowering period is calculated for the winter holidays.
Freesia belongs to the genus of perennial bulbous herbaceous plants. In Russia, it is not widespread, it is a matter of time. Such a toiler and beauty will soon conquer this northern country. It is called "Cape lilies of the valley", in honor of the area where they grow in their homeland.
The riddle of the appearance! The unique ecosystem of the Western Cape is strikingly different from the surrounding lands. This area is densely populated by endemic plants. There are no witnesses as an African plant penetrated the Old World. The first description of the plant dates back to the 18th century, but its name was different and it belonged to a variety of gladioli.
A century passed before the plant got its current name, and it was named after Friedrich Frieze from the city of Kiel, who was a botanist and a doctor.
The first copies that came to Europe were of interest only to scientists and collectors. A researcher on the African continent and a botanist, Maximilian Leuchtlin, introduced everyone to freesia.
He found a flower that has taken root in the botanical garden of the city of Panui and hastened to tell everyone about this fact. It happened in 1874, and after 4 years the first flowers went on sale. This became a sensation among gardeners in England.
A humble aristocrat! Attracted gardeners the fact that the plant is well cultivated at home, which made it possible to obtain fresh fragrant flowers in the winter. Cut off inflorescences of freesia could last up to 2 weeks.
Perfumers were fascinated by the exquisite aroma of “Cape lilies of the valley”. And soon he became the main component of many famous spirits. A bouquet of freesia, it is customary to give brides and loved ones, because they are considered a symbol of purity and innocence.
Species and varieties. A photo
Common types of freesia, refracted, hybrid, Armstrong:
- Hybrid freesia - gardeners often grow a mix of varieties of this species. The flowers have a very original smell. This species is very popular among flower arrangers. In the species, tubular flowers growing on a thin flower-like peduncle are usually located on one side. He has varieties with a uniform color of flowers, there are varieties with terry inflorescences.
- Armstrong freesia is a high branched species, growth up to 65 cm. The flower tube is white, with orange-yellow spots on it, its bell-shaped. Blooms in late spring.
- Refracted freesia - a low bush, only 30 cm. The classic spike-shaped inflorescence is white, has lily-shaped leaves, made up of 3-5 flowers. The bulb is ovoid, conical in shape. The flowers in the varieties may be yellow or yellow-green in color. Their shape is in the form of a funnel, very fragrant. Flowering time, spring.
At flower growers in special honor:
- white varieties - Apollo, Miranda, Ballerina,
- bright orange varieties - “Princess Mariyka”, “Carmen”, “Orange Favorite”,
- cream yellow - “Fantasy”,
- blue - Atlanta
- dark pink - "Saint Malo",
- violet-pink - "Flamingo",
- bluish-lilac - Royal Blue.
Flower diversity! Freesia has a lot of varieties, if you list everything, it will take a lot of time. There are unusual varieties with a peduncle up to 100 cm. Of course, special conditions are created for such giants and growing conditions.
Landing of freesia in the open ground
Choosing a place to plant freesia will take you a little time. Although the flower comes from Africa, it grows better with a little shade and coolness. He also cannot stand the wind. At home, the “Cape lily of the valley” grows in partial shade, along the river banks. The plant does not tolerate direct sunlight.
Before planting a flower bulb in the soil, it is good to know its composition and percentage of acidity. Do they meet the requirements of the flower. If the composition does not fit, you can always adjust it.
It is good if it is approximately of such a composition: turf land, sand or expanded clay, for better moisture and peat. Sand should be taken in large fractions, and expanded clay is the smallest on the contrary. This is a kind of soil drainage and baking powder, so that fresh air and moisture freely penetrate the roots of the plant.
It is necessary to plant a plant in open ground after the threat of soil frost has passed. In the south and in the middle zone of Russia, this is done on the eve of Victory Day, that is, in the first half of May. Not all land in the middle zone by this time will warm up to 16˚-18˚С heat. This is the optimum soil temperature for the growth and flowering of the “Cape Lily of the Valley”.
Get ready! To achieve good flowering, freesia bulbs, already sprouted in a pot, plant in the ground. By dipping the tank into the soil at the very top edge. The expanses of central Russia are stretched over long distances and it is best to focus on the temperature of the soil at the place of planting of these wonderful plants.
How to plant
How to plant bulbs correctly depends on the composition of the soil. The very first rule, bulbs should be sprouted. In order for them to start growing, they need a certain temperature, and by May, the soil does not warm up to 16-18 ° C. So you have to germinate in the room, and then the bores are planted in the ground in early spring. Why so early? Otherwise, they will not have time to bloom.
The depth of incorporation of sprouted bulbs depends on the type of soil. If the soil is heavy in the area, then it is not recommended to plant the sprout deeply. The maximum depth is 6 cm. Bulb planting is allowed to be planted in temperate soil already to a depth of 10 cm. In a loose, light soil, the sprout can be lowered to a depth of 12 centimeters or more.
Watering a flower requires not only moderation, but also compliance with certain conventions. Sprouts should not be watered directly from the tap. It must be defended and only then watered. It is not necessary to moisten a plant very plentifully. If possible, equip the area with drip irrigation. Yes, the Cape lily of the valley loves moist soil, but does not like waterlogging.
Take your time! When preparing the soil for planting flowers, do not forget to drain, add expanded clay and coarse sand. These materials will make the soil permeable. In no case do not water the plant after five in the evening. The best time to water is morning. Do not forget, the water must be defended, it is important for the plant.
As they grow, the grown stems should be tied to a support. During flowering, flower stalks become heavier and can no longer be in an upright position. After flowering, when the flowers dry, the freesia bulbs are dug up, dried and sent for winter storage.
Freesia in Siberia
Siberia, a harsh region, sometimes there are frosts below - 40 ° C. In spring, the soil does not warm up for a long time. They begin to plant plants only in the second half of May, and even then, only those that can germinate in cold land.
Finally, the land warms up only by the beginning of summer. There is simply not enough time for the Cape lily of the valley to sprout and bloom, its growing season is long. For a short Siberian summer is not suitable.
Constrained circumstances! You don’t have to get upset and this wonderful flower is grown here. Only for some time they grow in a pot on the windowsill, and only before flowering they plant it in open ground. Often in this region, a flower is grown as a greenhouse. In general, they grow in different ways, some in the greenhouse, some in the potted way, and some in the winter garden.
Freesia is suitable for growth area with an openwork shadow, it does not tolerate high temperature, just above + 22 ° C and you will not wait for fragrant flowers. But the cool temperature does not seduce this princess, the buds are not tied.
Somehow it does not fit into the head, a resident of the hottest continent, and refuses to bloom at high air temperatures.
It is best to plant it somewhere in a quiet corner of the garden. She can’t stand the heat, she’s afraid of the wind, she’s just a sissy. She needs a slightly acidic and light soil. It is advisable to know the composition of the soil on the site in order to adjust it to such capricious creatures. For Siberia, bulbs have to be planted at home in pots; bulbs are planted in late March, early April.
The bulbs are cleaned of scales, disinfected in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, then, without drying, planted in peat pots. Bores are planted in open ground in late May, early June. Focus on the weather in the region.
You need to eat on time! After planting, after 15 days, the first feeding of the Cape lily of the valley, with nitrogen fertilizer is done. You can shed the trunk circle with Stimul-1 or urea solution.
Freesia responds well to top dressing with organics, take 1 liter of mullein per 10 liter bucket, stir the solution and water it. Make the second fertilizing of the flowers organic fertilizer, it is done during the formation of the buds.
The third top dressing is carried out during flowering, with aqueous solutions of potassium salt, 20 gr. per bucket of water, or superphosphate 30 gr. on the bucket.
The main condition, do not overdo it with top dressing, everything should be in moderation. Do not think that if you feed the plant a lot, you will have gigantic flowers. In this case, they will not exist at all, there will be leaves up to 1.5 meters and a lot. That's all you get from the flower.
Like all corms from central Russia to the Kuril Islands, they dig and store seed in the apartment for the winter until spring. On the recommendation of agricultural technicians, the bulbs are stored in heating radiators with the obligatory installation of a water tray in the same place.
This is done so that the planting material does not dry out. But here in many forums, people involved in the cultivation of freesia in the open field do not make any special efforts to preserve planting material. The only thing they warn against storage in the refrigerator.
It's time on the estate! After the freesia fades and the leaves begin to dry, the nodules are dug up and sent to a ventilated room for drying, the temperature there should be at least + 25 ° С.
They wait when they dry, shake off the ground and put them in a box with the children. Store in open containers in the kitchen. At the end of February or the beginning of March for 2-3 weeks they are placed in cool + 12-15 ° С and then they are planted in pots.
In the Moscow region, summer residents so immediately planted in open ground. Cape lily of the valley blooms beautifully with this method of storage of bulbs.
Pests and diseases
Freesia, like most bulb plants, is sick:
- Gray, hard and dry rot.
- Sclerotic and penicillic rot.
- Bean and freesia viruses.
Viral diseases in Cape Lily of the valley begin as follows: wet spots appear on the leaves of the plant, drying out over time, they transform, and the color of these formations changes, becoming white. If there are a lot of such foci on a plant, then it can die. On nodules, spots are formed that resemble rust in color and structure.
Выращенные, из такого посадочного материала фрезии не цветут. Больные экземпляры следует уничтожать. На цветок часто покушаются, паутинный клещ, трипсы и тли. Зараженные такими вредителями растения лучше сжечь.
Выращивание фрезии в открытом грунте семенами
Before planting in the soil, freesia seeds are germinated, they usually emerge 2 decades after sowing. The plot prepared for planting is watered and seeds are dispersed at a certain distance from each other, falling asleep on top of 2 mm. a layer of earth.
And again exuberant bloom! When the sprouts have reached a height of 3 cm. They need thinning in order to get full-fledged developed seedlings. The resulting material can be planted in flower pots. These seedlings at the end of winter can please you with the first flowering.
Or, provide an opportunity to finish the growing season in the fall. Then dig out small heads, and send to winter rest. Keeping planting material, as usual, you store large bulbs. In the spring, plant small bulbs in the ground and at the end of summer they will delight you with fragrant inflorescences.
When freesia blooms
During flowering, Cape lily of the valley needs extra attention. Every two weeks it is necessary to feed the plant with liquid complex fertilizers. They must necessarily contain macro and micronutrients.
In mid-August, a magical action begins, freesias bloom. The charm of inflorescences blooming with delicate colors with a bewitching aroma makes the garden fabulous. And this tale lasts until the end of September. Even the first frosts are not able to spoil the bewitching beauty of these garden flowers.
Bulb excavation terms and storage conditions
When you dig out freesia for storage, its leaves will tell you. As soon as the drying and yellowing of the leaves begins, boldly scoop up the plant and lay it for storage. When digging, focus on the leaves, this period is individual for each area.
How to store bulbs, agricultural technicians call for strict implementation of recommendations. The rest period of the flower takes place in the florist’s apartments, it lasts for four months.
It is time! Bulbs are stored at a rather high temperature from +28 to + 31 ° С and humidity should be 75% - this will not allow the bulbs to dry. Such strict recommendations give you a high percentage of future flowering plants. At the slightest violation of instructions, the flower may “take offense” and not bloom or form few flowers in the brush.
After this time, the bulbs begin to wake up. They have a bud of growth, and the roots swell. But January, it is too early for planting, which means that it is necessary to slow down the awakening of the plant. It is necessary to place the flower in a room with a temperature of +12 to + 15 ° C.
March ends, the summer season will soon begin in the suburbs, and again the gardeners will be concerned about the question of how bloom will please freesia.
Refined, not conspicuous flowers with an exquisite aroma, excite the imagination of men. It was as if a mysterious stranger passed by, enveloping in a flurry of exquisite perfumes, beckoned and melted in the light dusk of the coming evening. Not only the day is ending, summer is ending. Saying goodbye, freesia flowers give hope for a meeting with her in the future. And as this flower is not capricious, all the same, freesia will be grown in the open ground, despite the difficulties of leaving.
Potted growing at home
In room culture can be planted at any time of the year .
For planting in a pot you need to pick up a high capacity (at least 20-22 cm), with a diameter of 14-18 cm. Several bulbs, from 5 to 8, are planted in one dish, depending on the size of the pot.
The plant is placed on a well-lit, southern or eastern window sill, providing the opportunity to slightly obscure the flower on hot sunny days. Growth requires a 12-14 hour light day.
If necessary, organize additional illumination. During flowering, the duration of lighting can be reduced by a couple of hours.
- during the germination period 13-16 degrees,
- during leaf growth 18-20 degrees,
- when budding and flowering 20-25 degrees.
In open ground planted in April . The soil at the time of planting should warm up to 12-15 degrees. For landing, they select a place sheltered from the wind and direct rays of the sun. The best option is in the light shade of low deciduous shrubs.
It is important to choose the exact time of landing. In cooler soil, the development of flower buds will stop, the plant will produce copious foliage, and will not bloom.
In this case, the sprouts may appear too early and fall under return frosts. Procrastination fraught with late shoots , then the growth period will be on too hot days, which is also not useful for freesia.
For a curb landing, a trench is prepared with a depth and width of a bayonet shovel or a little more. For solitary landings, pits of the same size are made. Prepared recesses are filled with a soil mixture.
For freesia cook loose fertile soil :
- rotted compost
- wood ash
- bone meal
- potassium sulfate and superphosphate (according to the manufacturer's instructions).
Freesia prefers neutral ph. To reduce acidity, dolomite flour or lime should be added.
Be sure to arrange a drainage layer using:
- coarse river sand
- small fraction of gravel
Bulbs recently purchased and stored in the refrigerator need to warm up at a temperature of about 20 degrees placed over a container of water. Before planting, they are stored in a cool place with a temperature of 8-12 degrees.
For the prevention of fungal diseases before planting corms for 40-60 minutes kept in fungicide solution , Fitosporin or potassium permanganate. It’s nice to add a growth stimulator. Bulbs are planted to a depth of 5-10 cm. The heavier the soil, the less bulbs should be buried.
Plantings are watered and establish supports for future plants. It can be special plastic or wire ring structures, or a grid of thin twine. As small freesias grow, their leaves are carefully guided into the supports.
Plant Care Rules
Look after freesia as follows:
- twice a month they are fed with mineral fertilizers dissolved in water (20 g of potassium salt and 40 g of superphosphate per bucket of water),
- summer every evening sprayed and periodically moisten the earth without drying out
- remove weeds and loosen the soil,
- cut off faded brushes, shortening the peduncle by a third.
How to breed
Propagated bulbs and seeds . More often use the first method.
On adult bulbs are formed little onions - kids . They are planted, as well as large and grow up.
Such plants do not bloom. When mature freesias bloom, fade, and are dug up for storage, do the same for grown children. Only next year, these bulbs will give full blooming freesia.
Seed propagation - the process is time-consuming, long, not always successful. In autumn, the seeds are laid out on the surface of fertile soil, lightly sprinkled, moistened and covered with glass or film.
Ascended after a month and strengthened seedlings thin out, the shelter is removed. A few months later, in May, seedlings are planted like adult plants, mulch the soil, shade.
Disease susceptibility and control
If freesia gets sick, then most often it is:
- thrips, spider mites or aphids.
For the prevention of the first two reasons, preventive treatment of the bulbs is carried out before planting.
Insecticides are used in pest control.
In the care of freesia, to obtain spectacular flowering plants, you need to follow a number of simple rules. But those patient and reverent florists, who have learned to get along with this capricious, are rightly proud of their skill and gain the recognition of their colleagues and the admiration of lovers of beauty.
Freesia belongs to the iris family. She comes from South Africa. The culture uses only varieties of hybrid freesia. A plant 50–90 cm high with xiphoid green leaves 15–20 cm long, somewhat similar to gladiolus leaves. Funnel-shaped flowers with a delicate lily of the valley aroma collected in inflorescences of 5-15 pieces. Their color is the most diverse - white, yellow, orange, red, blue, violet, often two-tone. Many varieties with double and semi-double flowers. Freesia is appreciated for the graceful shape of the flower and aroma, is good in cutting.
Planting freesia bulbs
The term for planting corms is April - May. They are planted after ten centimeters to a depth of five to ten centimeters. Flowering from spring planting of freesia with bulbs can be expected in August - September.
It is very important to complete planting work on time so that the plant has time to lay flower buds. It's okay if the temperature outside is cool. If the planting of freesia is delayed and work is carried out at +20 ° C and above, it will not bloom. An already formed inflorescence will dry out.
Outdoor Freesia Care
When grown in open ground, freesia must be regularly watered and fed.
Bulbs are planted in a flowerbed well lit by the sun.
Provide plentiful regular watering.
Bulbs sprout for a long time - about 3 weeks.
After germination, watering is somewhat limited.
Freesia does not like drought, but she also has a negative attitude to waterlogging, although she likes high humidity. It is watered under the root so that the earth is moderately moist.
It is better to water before dinner, so that in the evening the greens dry out: if the plants remain wet for a long time, a fungal disease can develop.
The evening watering of freesia should be carried out at such a time that the leaves dry before night. Otherwise, lowering the temperature and wet leaves can cause damage to the flower by putrefactive bacteria.
Tall, sometimes up to one meter, plants require support. This is an indispensable attribute of care for freesia. In greenhouses, for this purpose, a grid is stretched horizontally at a height of 20 cm from the ground. The second grid is placed twenty centimeters above the first. If the variety is tall, then a third is needed. Plants germinate through the net, which serves as their support.
By mid-July, freesia bushes grow to 40 cm and begin to form buds. Flowers bloom in August.
During budding, freesia is fed with a 0.2% solution of potassium or calcium nitrate.
Freesias bloom for a long time, revealing one flower after another. In mid-October, you can still admire the flowers in the garden or cut them for bouquets.
After all the flowers are cut, the plants are well watered and left dry without watering for several weeks before digging.
Bulb harvesting and storage
First signal: foliage turns yellow.
The second sign: the main root of the plant is thinning. They make a test excavation, and if the main root is still juicy, then they wait until it dries into a thread.
The aboveground, already beginning to turn yellow part of the plants is cut, the bulbs are dug up and brought into the house.
Harvesting Freesia Bulbs
They are laid out on paper or newspaper and dried for several days, avoiding direct sunlight. Then cleaned of old scales and put in a cardboard box.
They must be kept warm in high humidity - otherwise the bulbs will dry. To comply with this condition, a container of water is placed next to the box. Temperature 29˚-31˚C maintained for 12-16 weeks. 2 weeks before planting, the temperature is reduced to 12˚ 13˚, but corms can be put in the refrigerator (where the temperature is about 5˚) for no more than a week.
Why does freesia not bloom?
Typically, the reason is the improper care of the freesia corms during storage. If you do not withstand the indicated temperatures, and even more so put the corms in the refrigerator for a long time, then they may not bloom. At the same time, the corms “freeze” (that is, the stems do not grow, and the plant seems to fall asleep), may not grow for several years at all, or they will bloom poorly, weakly.
For freesia not only to grow, but also to bloom, at the initial stage of cultivation, it needs a temperature within 15 °, and then it is desirable to smoothly raise it to 20-30 °. Therefore, it is necessary to calculate the optimal landing time for certain climatic conditions.
Violation of the temperature regime leads to stretching of the plants. It is expressed in the fact that the distance between the first and second flower increases.
The angle at which the inflorescence moves away from the peduncle must be straight or even blunt, and when pulled, it bends and becomes sharp.
At the same time, the inflorescence looks uneven, untidy, and it has to be rejected.
How to prepare bulbs for planting
Before planting the plants in open ground or in a flower pot on the windowsill of the bulb, you need to prepare. This will provide good germination and abundant flowering. Bulbs should be strong, dense, without damage and rot, about two centimeters in size.
One of the varieties of freesia
- Bulb processing is as follows.
- After acquiring the bulbs, remove all dry flakes. Next, inspect the planting material for external damage and remove damaged bulbs.
- Place them in a linen bag and hold in a warm place near a container of water. This contributes to the formation of a peduncle inside the bulb. As well as the formation of root primordia on the bulb itself.
- Before planting, reduce the temperature in the place of storage of the bulbs, move them to a cool dark corner.
- Disinfect the bulbs, which will help reduce the risk of their disease or pest damage.
- For this, the bulbs are kept in a solution of potassium permanganate or azotobacterin.
- Rinse the bulbs in clean water.
Spray planting material with drugs that stimulate the rapid growth of the plant.
Proper bulb processing will ensure the future flowering of freesia.
Optimal soil composition for freesia
Freesias do not like heavy clay soils. The most favorable for them will be light, oxygen-rich soils. You can prepare the soil for plants by adding peat, humus, turf and sand.
If you plan to grow flowers at home, then ready-made soils for bulbous plants or universal soil, with the addition of peat, sawdust, perlite, are suitable. Mandatory use of drainage, such as brick chips, charcoal.
Bulb planting dates in the soil
As a rule, freesia bulbs are planted in open ground no later than mid-April, when the ground has not yet warmed up above fifteen degrees.
Of course, rather stable warm weather in April is not too often. Therefore, the time of planting bulbs in open ground can shift to the beginning of May, only then the soil can warm up to the desired values. This is the optimum temperature of the earth for the bulbs, otherwise the buds of the inflorescences may not germinate.
At an air temperature of twelve to nineteen degrees, plants germinate in a few weeks. When cooling, plant growth slows down.
Too hot weather contributes to the development of dense foliage, but inflorescences do not form at high air temperatures. Freesia just won't bloom.
Freesia can be grown at home.
In the fall, bulbs are not planted in the ground, since in winter they can die due to frost.
At home, depending on the desired flowering time, the bulbs are planted in the soil in September, at the beginning or at the end of October.
Then the plant will bloom, respectively, in January, early February or early March. Of course, these dates also depend on the type of flower.
Early ripening varieties can bloom as early as twelve or fifteen weeks after planting. Later varieties bloom no earlier than nineteen weeks after planting.
When purchasing bulbs of a certain variety, it is necessary to clarify the period of time that it will take for the plant to bloom.
How to grow freesia from seeds
As you know, freesia propagates not only onions, but also seeds. This is a rather time-consuming process that does not guarantee a good result. Typically, freesia seeds are used by breeders to breed a new variety. To grow freesia from seeds on your own, it is necessary to comply with several conditions:
- soak the seeds in a growth-promoting preparation for about twenty-four hours,
- prepare pots with soil, plant seeds there, pressing them a little into the ground,
- cover the seeds planted in the ground with a film and put the containers in a bright place, preferably on a window on the south side,
- every day, lift the film, ventilate and spray the ground with water,
- as soon as the seeds sprout and sprouts appear, their residence time without a film increases, later it is completely removed,
- to sprout the sprouted sprouts at a distance of at least 6 centimeters between them,
- put supports for plants and, as necessary, attach stems to it. It’s better to do this before the plant grows, otherwise you can damage the roots of the flower with a support,
- periodically water and fertilize flowers.
If these conditions are met, after a few months, freesia will bloom.
How to plant bulbs in the soil
To choose the optimal depth and location of the bulbs in the soil, you need to decide on the place of their planting.
At home, planting bulbs in the soil will not be any difficulty. Bulbs are planted in prepared soil to a depth of about five centimeters at the same distance from each other.
A wonderful find for a gardener - freesia
After the bulbs are planted in a pot, it must be placed in a cool place. The optimum temperature is about fifteen degrees. До того как взойдет растение, полив осуществлять не нужно.
Для того чтобы растение зацвело, нужно много света, не менее тринадцати световых часов. Добиться этого можно, установив дополнительные приборы освещения. Особенно важно это в зимние месяцы, когда солнечного света очень мало.
Перед посадкой в открытом грунте луковицы лучше предварительно прорастить. Это существенно повысит всхожесть растений.
The depth of planting bulbs in open ground is largely due to its composition and characteristics. The heavier the soil, the less the depth of planting the bulbs. Accordingly, if the soil is light, then the bulbs are planted to a depth of a little more than ten centimeters.
The landing depth in medium soil is about eight cm, and in heavy soil - not more than five cm. The distance between the rows should be at least ten centimeters.
Plants planted in spring will bloom around late summer or early fall.
The plant must be watered periodically. Over-dried or too moist soil is unacceptable. A flowering plant is watered more often than one that has not yet bloomed.
Stalks need to be tied up or use supports, otherwise it can break under the weight of the flowers.
Freesia loves high humidity. At home, periodic and frequent spraying can contribute to this. You can not put the plant near heating appliances or batteries that dry the air very much.
The plant needs to be fed, especially during the flowering period. Feeding is usually done once every two weeks.
The first flowering of freesia
Periodically weeding, getting rid of weeds and loosening the soil.
Withered inflorescences must be removed immediately so as not to deprive the plant and bulb of their nutrition, especially if no further propagation of freesia by seeds is planned.
It is necessary to get rid of parasites and pests. Freesia has a lot of them. These are spider mites, aphids, rot, fungal infections.
After freesia fades, produce its full pruning. Bulbs remaining in the ground continue to be watered. This is required for the formation of new flower bulbs.
In this case, new bulbs actively accumulate nutrients for a month or two for subsequent flowering.
For the winter, they dig a plant, cut the stems and leaves, leaving the bulbs. Dry in drawers with a mesh bottom at a temperature of about thirty degrees for a week.
Then the planting material is cleaned, sorted, disinfected and left until spring in a room with high temperature and humidity.
Performing these simple steps will provide the plant with abundant flowering every year.
While watching the video you will learn about growing freesia.
As you can see, growing freesia has certain nuances and rules. If you observe them, freesia will be able to decorate not only the garden, but also the house with its flowering throughout the year.
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06/06/2017 at 00:28 | #
I really like Freesia, I always wanted to see such a beautiful flower in my country house, the only problem is that I don’t have time to look after her, so I admire flowers only in the room.
Julia Expert Fertility
06/24/2019 at 22:09 | #
Hello Lisa! If you prepare the conditions in advance and use some agricultural techniques, then the care of the described plant will not be too burdensome.
Freesia requires plentiful lighting, but does not tolerate direct sunlight too well. Therefore, so that it is not necessary to constantly shade the flower, you can plant it near a sprawling tree or install scattering grids.
This device is useful for many cultures that are afraid of sunburn. You can organize entire flower beds under a canopy, or arrange a rest area there.
For example, you can put wicker garden furniture, and plant beautifully flowering plants, such as freesia, nearby. In addition, the described conditions comply with the draft protection requirement.
The soil for the flower must be fertilized in advance with rotted humus. Also, it does not hurt to add deoxidized peat when planting. This will make the soil loose and provide good oxygen access.
We want to note that this soil mixture is also suitable for home cultivation. It is prepared from the listed components, as well as sheet and turf land. All components in equal proportions.
A seedling of this species with narrow leaves and not very large buds is less demanding, they can be planted a little denser than varieties with a more spreading crown.
Be sure to remove the faded buds, as they not only spoil the decorative look, but also delay the strength of the plant. Depending on the variety, support may be required.
Watch the condition of the flower, if it cannot hold the stems on its own and falls under the weight of the buds, tie it to something. Now there are quite beautiful decorative supports of different colors and shapes. Moreover, they are made of both metal and plastic.
The plant likes a moist environment, so you can spray it in the evening. But, if there is no time for this, you can simply put a container of water near the plant or plant it at a decorative pond.
When the bulbs are planted in open ground, we recommend to mulch the area under the flower with peat or old sawdust. This will protect the rhizome from overheating.
We recommend pouring the soil with a solution of manganese before planting. This will protect the plants from some fungal diseases. If you plant flowers on agrofiber, you can forget about weeds.
Freesia Armstrong (Freesia armstrongii)
The plant is low - 65-70 cm. Inflorescences grow in panicles of 3-5 pieces. A distinctive feature of this species is that the flowers are only red shades - from pale pink to scarlet. The inside of the base of the flower and stamen is yellow, the pestle is blue. The flowering time is short - from May to June.
Cardinal . In our country, the Cardinal variety is common. Three peduncles grow from one bulb, on each of which up to 11 flowers painted in red tones bloom.
Freesia broken (Freesia refracta)
A compact plant with a height of not more than 40-50 cm. The flowers of most varieties are light in color.
Fragrant - milky flowers with a bright yellow spot at the base. The name of the plant received for a very strong aroma of lily of the valley.
Alba . A distinctive feature of the variety is very large flowers of a snow-white color, covered with purple stripes inside the funnel.
Hybrid freesia (Freesia hybrida)
Hybrids are obtained by crossing the broken freesia and Armstrong. One bulb produces up to three peduncles, up to one and a half meters high. The flowers are large, of various colors.
Ballerina . Yellowish-white flowers are arranged in a row.
Caramel . Shoots reach a height of 75-80 cm. The inflorescences are spike-shaped, arrange up to 8 red-brown flowers on their surface.
Pimperina . The variety is mainly for home cultivation - the plant is compact up to 20 cm tall. The flowers are corrugated, red in burgundy, with a yellow spot at the base.
Royal blue - Freesia with purple flowers with dark veins and border. There is a small yellow spot at the base.
Royal ball . A plant with double flowers, reaching about 6 cm in diameter. Possible colors: white, yellow, purple, red. Flowers are collected in brushes.