The purpose of pre-planting soil preparation is to create optimal or close conditions for the growth and development of the plant root system. Therefore, for two to three years before laying the garden, it is necessary to free the soil from weeds, to improve its water-air regime.
Pre-planting tillage consists in creating a deep root-inhabited layer, in increasing its fertility and improving the structure.
On well-fertilized soils, fruit trees can be planted immediately. Soils that are not fertile or heavily littered must first be kept under black or occupied steam, while adding organic fertilizer.
Land under the garden is plowed in autumn or spring. Plowing medium and highly podzolic soils is carried out to the depth of the arable layer (25-30 cm) with additional loosening by a subsoiler 10-15 cm, bringing the total depth of the cultivated layer to 40-45 cm.
On weakly podzolic gray forest soils, continuous planting plowing, as well as strip plowing (with a strip width of 2-3 plow passes) along the lines of future rows, can be used. Landing on the stripes is carried out in deep furrows.
For each hectare, 40-50 tons of organic fertilizers (manure, peat, feces, compost), 2-3 centners of potash fertilizers and 4-5 centners of superphosphate are applied before plowing. Instead of superphosphate, 8-10 phosphorite flour or 5-6 cph of phosphorite flour may be added in a mixture with 2-3 c of superphosphate. Acidic soils are calcined at the rate of 3-5 tons of lime per 1 ha, depending on the acidity of the soil.
During the spring planting of fruit trees, the soil plowed in the fall should be harrowed in the spring in two tracks. During autumn planting, harrowing is carried out immediately after plowing.
Instead of continuous cultivation of the soil when laying a garden, which requires large expenditures of organic and mineral fertilizers and labor, you can limit yourself to local cultivation of the soil in the planting pits (1 m in diameter and 60 cm deep).
Local cultivation consists in enriching the soil of planting pits with a small amount of humus (about 25 kg) and mineral fertilizers (300-800 g of superphosphate and 160-200 g of potassium salt) before planting a tree. Nitrogen fertilizers are best applied as top dressing in spring and summer in the second year after planting, when the trees have already taken root.
Since phosphorus-potassium fertilizers with surface application are difficult to penetrate into deeper soil horizons and are inaccessible to fruit plants, local cultivation of the soil becomes especially important, while the cost compared with general deep cultivation is significantly reduced by several years (at least five) the requirements of the fruit tree for nutrients in the root distribution are provided.
Phosphorite flour, like superphosphate, is recommended to be introduced into the planting pit in a mixture with organic fertilizers. In the absence of manure or humus, compost is used. Instead of potash fertilizers, you can add wood ash - up to 1 kg per pit. Acidic soils are lime based on up to 1-1.5 kg of lime per pit.
Before planting the garden, the soil is carefully leveled, cutting off the hillocks and filling up the hollows. Following the pre-planting cultivation of the soil, the garden is broken down, that is, the places of planting, trees are outlined.
The plot reserved for the garden is divided into quarters, separating them from each other by internal roads. Roads are lined with wood in the form of alleys or on one side. Such landings serve as internal windbreaks.
Inside the quarters, the site is divided into separate rectangles, using goniometric tools - theodolites, compasses, eckers. Stakes are placed along the contour of the rectangles (first, along their long side) at the distances taken for trees in rows and between rows. Distances are determined using a measuring tape.
In order for the stake to exactly get to the same place after digging a hole, a two-meter landing board is used with cutouts in the middle and at the ends that are on the same straight line. The landing board is applied to the standing stake with a middle cut, and small control pegs are driven into the end cuts. After that, the board is removed, the stake is removed to the side and a hole is dug with a digger or manually. After digging a hole, a board is placed on the control pegs. The middle cutout of the board will show the place where you need to put the stake in order to hammer it into the bottom of the pit.
In order to correctly divide the plot for fruit trees of various species, you need to know the row spacing and the distance between the plants in a row, adopted for the cultivation area. Such data are given in the table.
After processing, fertilizing and breaking up, round pits with steep walls for planting trees are dug in the area. The pits for planting apple and pear should have a diameter of 1-1.25 m and a depth of 60-70 cm, and for cherries and plums, 0.7-0.8 and 0.4-0.6 m, respectively.
Are pits prepared for spring planting in the fall, for autumn? in the spring or as a last resort not later than 20-30 days before planting. When the pit is dug up, with the help of the landing board, a 1.5 m long peeled from bark is put in its former place and it is driven firmly into the bottom of the pit.
Ground from the lower layers of the pit should not be mixed with the upper, more fertile layers of soil, but rather they should be stacked in separate piles along the edges of the pit.
Before planting, you need to bring rotted manure or compost to the pits and mix them with the ground during planting. This will ensure the best growth and development of fruit trees in the first period of their life.
Basic soil properties
As an agricultural resource, soil has the following properties:
- limited quantity
- inability to move,
These features emphasize the need for an extremely careful attitude to soil resources and constant care for improving soil fertility (fertility is such a soil structure in which plants are provided with water and minerals freely).
The natural level of fertility rarely favors the cultivation of fastidious conditions requiring a large amount of nutrients from cultivated plants. In addition, it decreases over time, since the amount of nutrients is limited, and each plant planted on this soil absorbs them. By applying fertilizers, organic or mineral, fighting weeds, planting cultivated herbaceous plants, using reproductive and high-tech soil cultivation systems, any agricultural enterprise or farm can achieve a high level of so-called effective fertility: the state of the soil in which it is able to supply nutrients set number of plants.
Scientists argue that in terms of mechanical composition, the best soils for growing various crops are humus-rich, loose loamy sand and loamy soils. Agriculture is carried out in areas with suitable for cultivation soils, with typical climatic conditions that are typical for the area and easily tolerated by plants. Production in small areas does not make sense. In this regard, agricultural enterprises, as a rule, are based on plots with a large area, which leads to the need for mechanization of production.
Over time, any production force wears out. Soil, with the rational use of its resources, regular fertilizer, and restoration work, does not deteriorate, but, on the contrary, it becomes better, soil fertility increases. It performs many functions in the biosphere, the main of them:
- is the habitat of some animals,
- is a "supplier" of food for plants,
- collects and accumulates an impressive amount of chemical energy,
- maintains a balance of the biosphere.
All of the above indicates the value of the soil and its exceptional benefits when used properly, rationally. To ensure optimal conditions for germination of the crop, it is necessary to carefully prepare the soil.
Features of soil types
First you need to understand what type of soil should be cultivated:
- The clay soil is hard, with strong moisture, this soil becomes viscous, easily deformed, but hardly breaks. On these soils, some varieties of roses, irises, raspberries, figs, apple trees, cherries, hawthorn, many legumes and nightshade grow.
- Loamy soil in a dry state is ground into a powder, a detailed examination of which reveals grains of sand and dust particles. When moistened, it becomes easily deformable. On such soils, under the conditions of the development of modern agricultural science, any crops grow, but the plants of the families of legumes, cruciferous and nightshade give the highest yield.
- Dry sandy loam soil is ground into a uniform powder between the fingers. When considering, you can distinguish sand. Wet is hardly deformed. Suitable for growing various root crops, legumes and cruciferous.
- Dry sandy soil is a large powder. When moistened, it does not deform. Allows you to grow some nightshade and root crops.
- Crushed, or cartilaginous soil contains clay, sand, crushed and cartilaginous particles. Suitable for growing conifers.
Mechanical loosening is carried out in order to saturate the soil with oxygen and minimize obstacles to the root system of the plant. It can be made by hand or with the help of special equipment, be simple or double.
Before starting loosening, it is checked whether it should be produced. If the soil easily crumbles from a depth of 8-20 centimeters, then loosening can be done, the absence of this effect indicates that loosening is early.
Before the procedure, all plants from the selected area are removed. The top layer of turf is removed by about 8-10 centimeters. Double (planting) loosening is carried out at a depth of 45-60 cm, which improves drainage, destroying hardened soil layers. When the turf is removed, a kind of "trench" with a width of not more than 30 cm is excavated in stripes over the entire area, the earth excavated from one "trench" is filled up in another. After the end of plant loosening, the soil surface rises slightly. Planting begins after leveling the soil.
Improving the quality of the composition
The lack of organic and mineral substances is filled with fertilizers. For example, with an increase in the acid-base balance, sulfate-containing fertilizers are introduced into the soil, and with a decrease in it, limestone. The mineral balance of the soil is determined by special instruments.
Any plant waste is suitable as organic fertilizer - sawdust, fallen leaves, small pieces of wood bark, dead herbaceous plants, mowed grass, rotted fruits. All this is collected in one container, poured, and two months later it is ready for use.
Features of soil preparation for sowing:
- Preparation is carried out annually.
- It is necessary to create a fertile soil layer with a thickness of 35-40 centimeters, with each year the thickness of this layer should increase by 3-5 centimeters.
- Cultivation of the soil is mandatory.
The first important land operation in preparing the site for planting is digging the land (if you do not take into account its release from debris, weeds, leveling, etc.). To begin digging, you should understand your depth, as well as soil features. Heavy soil requires digging to a depth of about 50 cm. The middle soil is dug up mainly by 60 cm, and very light, sandy - by 70 cm or more. Do not forget to lay organic fertilizers in parallel with digging, but the manure should not be deeper than 20 cm from the surface. With a sufficiently deep digging (over 20 cm), stones, roots, etc. should be selected from the ground.
As a rule, the soil is deeply dug in the fall or in the winter - until the spring and the sowing period, the earth must settle. Deep digging enriches the earth with oxygen, and it is easier for water to reach the lower layers. If the upper soil layer is as fertile as the lower one, then they can be mixed, otherwise the upper layer will have to be removed and folded separately, so that after digging the lower layers, the upper one is returned.
Deep autumn digging is performed early so that before the frost the bacteria have time to work on the treated areas. Also in order to make the most of the autumn rains. Moisture will not be absorbed into the uncultivated compacted soil, while the supply of water in the soil is extremely important. Humidified land is less watered and less effort is spent on growing crops. In autumn, the soil is dug up approximately 30 cm without breaking clods - after frosts by spring they will become crumbly. During this period, manure is introduced. With a sufficiently deep digging, the fertilizer is first scattered over the site, after which it is buried by 15 cm and only then proceed to a deeper digging. Also in the fall they neutralize a variety of pests, which, after digging up, appear on the surface. Some die there, while others burrow deep into the earth, where they die out due to a lack of oxygen.
❧ The seeds of some vegetables will be better to germinate if they are exposed to an alternating current of 3.5 kV / cm for 10-20 minutes, and any seeds that have visited for 10
20 min in a sealed chamber with gaseous ammonia, 90% better germinate and grow twice as good
In spring you can see how good the soil is, fertilized and dug up in the fall. It is homogeneous and with excellent structure. If it was dug deep, then in spring there is no need for a similar procedure - just level it with a rake. One should hurry, because under the sun the soil quickly loses such valuable moisture.
When the ground is under snow in the winter, it is compacted, therefore it requires a shallow spring digging (8-12 cm).
If you didn’t dig in the autumn, you will have to do it in the spring, but also shallow - 15-18 cm, and then, when the state of the earth is average between wet and dry. After digging, the ground is immediately combed with a rake.
Digging is a key mechanical technique for primary tillage, but loosening refers to surface tillage, although it may well be deep. Its essence is fine processing, which increases, albeit not as significantly as digging, the access of oxygen to the ground, which contributes to the development of the root system. The layers of the earth when loosening remain in place, and the result is the destruction of the soil crust (surface loosening must be carried out after irrigation or heavy rain, when the crust forms), elimination of weed shoots, with large roots being dug up. If you loosen the earth often enough, it reduces the evaporation of moisture and improves the absorption of water by the soil. As technical equipment when loosening, use hoes, choppers and a variety of cultivators. Growing vegetables requires regular loosening of the soil to remove weeds and improve the soil near the plants.
There is such a technique - deep cultivation, which is carried out in the spring. For this, forks can be used that move the soil layer. The process is as follows: first you need to stick the forks into the ground vertically, then tilt yourself, deepening the forks into the soil, pull the handle forward, shifting the layer of the earth. Next, you should loosen the surface to a depth of about 8-9 cm, pouring ash, compost, mineral fertilizers and trace elements into the soil. Deep cultivation is used when it is necessary that oxygen and roots reach the subsoil layer, however, the earth does not need to be turned over.
It is also worth mentioning the point of view on the loosening (and digging) of representatives of a fairly popular ecological farming. So, they consider it harmful to the soil and try to use it to a minimum. In their opinion, worms and residues of plant roots are useful because they provide channels for access to oxygen and moisture, and during loosening (and digging) the internal structure of the earth is disturbed, it sags, channels disappear with corresponding consequences. In addition, loosening and digging are fatal for earthworms and other microorganisms, due to which a humus layer is formed. And finally, when the soil is dug up, the humus layer mixes with deep soil, which does not differ in uniformity, as a result of which the humus layer becomes poorer, which leads to the loss of soil fertility. Constantly mixed with the infertile deep layer, it is extremely thin, and the soil loses its fertility. There are tools such as plane cutters and weeders, which minimize the damage from loosening.
For the garden, growing plants without using intensive cultivation and digging is possible because there are no plants with a deep root system. Indeed, you can use minimal digging and loosening, and fertilize superficially. Причем задолго до высадки растений, поскольку необходимо дать дождевым червям возможность усвоить подкормку. Если все делать правильно, то сорняки будут расти неохотно, влага меньше испаряться, улучшаться структура земли и увеличиваться урожайность. В любом случае перед всей операцией необходимо убрать имеющиеся сорняки мульчированием либо химическими средствами. Также применение бесперекопочной техники оправданно при наличии системы грядок.
Under this intricate name is an elementary, but very effective agricultural method, the essence of which is to cover the soil with any materials that protect it from excessively abundant weed growth, drying out, compaction and imbalance of the water and air in the upper soil layer. As a result of using this technology, the farmer rarely needs to weed and loosen, and to water too.
The set of mulch materials is very diverse, you can use different organic and inorganic materials: sawdust, grass, bark, paper, stone, roofing material, film, etc. The most useful of organic materials is rotted compost without weed seeds.
Naturally, it is better to use organic materials, since they do not trap air and water, rot over time, nourishing the earth with microelements and beneficially affecting its structure. But it should be remembered that certain organics change the acidity of the soil, so you need to choose materials for mulch carefully.
From this perspective, compost seems to be an ideal mulch, since it does not affect the acidity of the soil (has a slightly alkaline reaction) and enriches it with nutrients (in particular, phosphorus).
Various wood residues are slightly acidic. They must be composted at least a year before use. If the bark goes into action, then the sizes of the pieces should not exceed 50 mm. She is good at mulching raspberries, fruit trees and shrubs. In peat, the reaction is acidic and it is well suited for mulch under plants growing in acidic soil, for example, clay peat is loose, due to which it passes water and oxygen. On the other hand, peat has a black color, because of which it will heat up under the sun and the earth will cross over under this material. That is, peat is suitable not for continuous mulching, but for dusting rows of vegetables.
The use of freshly cut grass is useful in that it enriches the soil with nitrogen, while dry grass, on the contrary, takes nitrogen from the ground. There should be no weed seeds in the grass. It is better to dry the freshly cut grass a little so that it does not rot on the beds. Before applying straw, nitrogen fertilizers are applied to the soil.
The eggshell is characterized by an alkaline reaction, and such a mulch effectively resists the invasion of slugs and snails.
The described procedure is recommended to be performed in late spring. The earth at this time was warm, it had already warmed up, and wet, because the snow had melted. However, there are no strict requirements for the timing of mulching. It is only necessary to take the necessary preparatory measures: eliminate weeds, thoroughly moisten the soil, fertilize, if necessary, loosen. Then you can use the mulch, which is laid in a layer no thicker than 50 mm. Gradually, the layer may thin out due to natural factors, so it should be periodically replenished. At the same time, you need to know that the mulch laid on poorly heated soil may slow down the development of plants, which is explained by the lower temperature under the mulch compared to the temperature of uncovered ground (by several degrees). In this case, you need to remove the mulch and let the earth warm up for 2-3 warm days.
The object of mulching can be anything: berries, greenhouses, beds, plantations, flower beds, fruit shrubs and trees. The stems of plants, the zone of the root neck must be free from covering material, otherwise they may rot. If the plant is perennial, then the mulch can not be removed, but each year the layer is replenished. Under the annuals, a layer of mulch is buried in the ground, if there is no need for rotting the material, or moved to a compost heap so that the material continues to rot. Dry grass can be collected in a separate place for the future.
When mulching, the type and composition of the soil must be taken into account. In particular, the sandy-clay soil is heavy and it is enough to sprinkle the covering material with a layer of 20 mm, as with a greater thickness, decay will begin from below. It is better to add material later. 2-3 garden seasons will pass, and it will be noticeable how the soil structure has improved.
The land under the mulch requires much less watering than open, and there is almost no need to loosen it. Mulching material effectively counteracts the leaching and weathering of nutrients from the soil, as well as the appearance of weeds. Weed only have to meet here and there solitary weeds. In addition, the temperature balance is maintained in the earth, which favorably affects the root system.
Preparing the soil for seedlings: the main stages
The key to success in all matters, in particular, in the cultivation of horticultural crops, is advance planning. The first and main condition for obtaining a good crop is competent soil preparation. The main part of the plants needs fertile, loose and permeable soil that passes air well. Ideal can be called the soil that, in a state of maturity, easily crumbles. It is important that the soil meets all the needs of the crops that it is planned to grow in it. The process of preparing the soil for seedlings requires not only compliance with the sequence, but also the presence of a certain amount of knowledge.
Every gardener and gardener can make turf soil, considered one of the best foundations for soil mixtures. They have been harvesting raw materials for such land throughout the year in meadows, so that in May it can already be used. This process involves the following agrotechnical manipulations:
1. The sod is cut with layers and stacked in a stack from a height of 1 m.
2. To speed up the process of reproduction, laying sod, it is interbedded using fresh manure.
3. To avoid drying out of the stack, it needs to be provided with regular watering, especially in hot weather.
4. After 3-4 months, a bunch of need to shovel and weed out large rhizomes that have not decomposed.
5. The resulting soil should be scattered in buckets and bags, and then sent for storage in a cool enclosed area.
Please note that the preparation of the mixture requires the use of exclusively fresh ingredients that have never been used before. This allows you to minimize preparatory work in the spring. In addition, such a composition does not need to be disinfected - you can immediately sow seeds into it. If you plan to plant tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, cabbage, celery or lettuce, the seed must be sown in a mixture of turf, humus and sand in a ratio of 1: 2: 1. For 10 liters of such a mixture you will need 2 cups of wood ash, 10 tsp. superphosphate and a few pinches of potassium sulfate.
Seeds of crops that need nutritious and neutral soil, and which do not like lime, should be sown in turf soil with the addition of humus in a ratio of 1: 1. You must also add 1 cup of ash to 5 liters of soil.
How to prepare the soil for sowing?
You need to start preparing the land for planting in early autumn - during this period, usually digging the site. If it is not produced in the fall, then it will have to be done in the spring. This operation is mandatory, otherwise after some time the earth will dry out and it will be difficult to break it. In addition, you need to walk around the site and organize ridges with a rake.
The digging process involves the removal of rhizomes of weed grass and insect larvae, as well as the introduction of fertilizers, manure and humus. Pay attention to the fact that the territory allotted for root crops does not need to be added with humus and manure. The only thing necessary is to sprinkle mineral fertilizing on the soil surface before proceeding with digging.
In 6-7 days after digging, it will be possible to start weed control, which is firmly established in your area. This is done, again, using a rake. After harrowing the topsoil, the germinated weeds will turn to the surface and die. To reduce the contamination of the earth, it is necessary to carry out about 3 such procedures with an interval of 3-4 days.
One of the most crucial moments in preparing the soil for sowing seeds is the formation of beds. At this point, nitrogen fertilizers should be added: urea and ammonium nitrate. In the spring, the soil lacks nitrogen, so such fertilizing will be of great benefit. Mineral fertilizers must be scattered on the ground and planted deep into the beds using a rake. Further, the topsoil should be well leveled, after which it will be possible to start planting seedlings or sowing in abundantly watered soil. Seedlings should be planted in the wells very carefully. If peat containers are used, they will have to be torn up in order to improve the growth of the root system. It is desirable that the density of plantings was not too large. By the way, the ideal time for planting seedlings is considered the evening when the sun has already hidden behind the horizon.
We prepare the greenhouse for spring. How to get a high yield?
What is a greenhouse? This is a reliable design that allows for the whole year to engage in the preparation of seedlings and the cultivation of various cultivated plants. Features of the materials from which the greenhouse was built have a direct effect on temperature and other indicators of the air environment. As you know, each plant has individual preferences regarding these parameters. The preparation of the greenhouse for the season usually begins after the last harvest.
When vegetable or fruit crops are grown in one place, and even in an enclosed space, sooner or later the soil is depleted and becomes incredibly vulnerable to infection by various diseases, microbes and other pests. As a result, one can only dream of high yields. That is why it is so important to take care of soil disinfection in the greenhouse, which is one of the most important processes. It is carried out in various ways. We present to your attention the most popular among them:
1. Steaming. This is perhaps the simplest and most popular method in which the soil is scalded with boiling water and covered with a film. The key advantage of this process is its cost effectiveness.
2. Copper sulfate. To prepare such a solution, add 1 tbsp. vitriol on 10 l of water. Due to the toxicity of this substance, it is very important to follow all the rules and recommendations when using it.
3. Formalin. This solution is very effective in combating various parasites. You need to prepare trenches in advance and pour a little formalin into them, then fill everything up with earth. After this, the greenhouse must be tightly closed and not opened for 2 weeks. After 14 days, open it and properly ventilate the room.
4. Chlorine lime. Another popular means for disinfecting a greenhouse, which is scattered throughout the entire area of the greenhouse.
5. Fumigation. One of the most effective methods, characterized by safety and high performance. For fumigation, a sulfur block is used: it is placed in the center of the greenhouse and set on fire. In the process of its decay, a gas is released that destroys parasites. At the time of this procedure, the greenhouse should be tightly closed. After complete combustion of the checker, the greenhouse will need to be ventilated for 2-3 weeks.
Experienced gardeners and gardeners recommend updating the soil when processing greenhouse soil. It is best to take new land from a place where nothing grows - so you get a guarantee that it is not infected with anything.
You can also disinfect the old soil in the greenhouse, and then add a new soil preparation of your own preparation. To cook it, you will need humus and organic fertilizers (litter, manure, sawdust, sand, limestone, peat). As for the introduction of inorganic fertilizers into the greenhouse soil, this is decided by the owner of the greenhouse. For example, the currently popular organic farming does not require fertilizing from mineral fertilizers.
To get a good, environmentally friendly crop, the tops of the beds should be periodically mulched with compost, and the leaves should be sprayed with microelements. Planting in greenhouses, as well as in open ground, requires the observance of crop rotation of vegetable crops. Growing the same crops in one place, it is important to ensure soil fertility. This is done quite simply: remove the top layer and replace it with nutritious soil.
How to improve the condition of the soil in the greenhouse?
Soil preparation for sowing should begin with warming up. To do this, you need to build trenches across the ridges and pour hot water into them. Thanks to this measure, the temperature of the soil rises to 10-14 ° C. For a good warming up of the earth, you can also cover the beds with a very dense film. After the soil is well warmed up, it will be necessary to make fertilizers. According to experienced gardeners, an excellent solution would be to plant green manure. This method contributes to the development of special microorganisms that improve the structure of the soil and have a healing effect on the main culture. After fertilizing, the soil should be plowed, and after 8-13 days it will be possible to start planting.
General soil preparation guidelines
In order to do everything right, preparing the soil for future plantings, gardeners and gardeners, one should take into account such features:
1. The mechanical composition. There are 3 types of soil: light, medium and heavy. Most plants prefer medium soils, as well as sandy loam (slightly lighter than medium). To make heavy clay soil easier, sand needs to be added, and lightweight sandy soil, in which there is little nutrition, will increase the amount of organic compost.
2. Acidity. With increased acidity of the soil, the state of cultivated plants is aggravated - the development of beneficial microorganisms that they need stops. In this situation, it is necessary to add additives based on lime. Plant growth slows down significantly if the soil is neutral. For planting crops (with the exception of cucumbers, cabbage, beets and black currants) in such soil, it is necessary to acidify the beds by mulching them with compost mixed with pine sawdust.
3. Salinity. One of the most difficult problems gardeners and gardeners have to deal with is salinization of the soil. If the soil is saline, crops grow incredibly slowly. In addition, their development is significantly inhibited. The presence of quinoa and wormwood on the site indicates the salinity of the soil. To correct the situation, you should make a large amount of compost, green manure and humus. To increase soil fertility, plastering is used. The essence of this procedure is simple: after digging the soil, gypsum scatters along its upper layer. The next step is sowing on the site of green manure (leaf mustard). When it grows, the earth will need to be dug up.
It is important to remember that a lot depends on the proper preparation of the preparatory work: how intensively the seeds will germinate, how quickly the seedlings will appear, the root system will strengthen and, of course, how high the yield will be. Compliance with the technology and rules in the preparation of the soil contributes to the creation of appropriate conditions for heating its surface layer, improving water and air regimes, destroying weeds and various pests. All this will make it possible to make good and proper planting, which in the future will bring a solid crop of high quality!
Treatment with chemically and biologically active substances
Microorganisms play an important role in creating soil fertility. Microorganisms are involved in many processes, for example, organic decomposition. Microbial cenosis on the roots of plants is strictly specific. Microorganisms help the plant to feed, sometimes carry out a protective function. Some microorganisms are able to break down harmful substances - phosphates. Humus formation is completely determined by the activity of microorganisms.
Before sowing, the preparations “EM-1”, “Oksizin”, “Baikal -1” are introduced into the soil, containing microorganisms that support soil fertility. Phytocide preparations or pesticides are introduced to control plant pests.
Preparing soil in a greenhouse before planting
Soil preparation in the greenhouse occurs using the three steps described above. Fertilizers rich in magnesium, molybdenum, manganese, nitrogen, calcium, potassium, sodium, and boron are introduced. For example, siderata.
Siderata are plants that easily form shoots grown on cultivated land. These plants subsequently "smell" into the soil, become sources of organic matter and the habitat of soil microorganisms. The most commonly used siderates are:
- representatives of the legume family (clover, clover, vetch and others),
- representatives of the Cruciferous family (shepherd’s bag, rape and others),
- representatives of the Cereal family (Sudanese grass, granary and others).
Сеять их следует весной ( в период с марта по апрель) и осенью (после сбора урожая), а запахиваются за 1-2 недели до посадки культур. Важно также увлажнить и прогреть грунт ранней весной, так как в парниках он обычно сильно пересыхает, поэтому является хорошим теплоизолятором. Для этого рекомендуется прогревать гряды одновременно с трех сторон уже после взрыхления грунта. Можно сделать небольшие борозды для увеличения площади контакта теплого воздуха с почвой. После этого грунт увлажняется ЭМ-раствором и поливается.
Preparing the soil for planting cucumbers
Cucumbers are quite demanding plants under environmental conditions. They can be grown both outdoors and in the greenhouse. They need special conditions. The main ones are:
- High light.
- High humidity (up to 80%).
- Medium-high temperatures (about 25 ° C).
- PH of the soil is 6-7.5. Acidic soil before planting cucumbers must be liming.
- Irrigation with warm water (not lower than 18 C).
Tillage before planting cucumbers requires a special approach, since this vegetable crop is quite capricious.
- If the soil is acidic, be sure to produce liming.
- Carry out mechanical loosening of the soil.
- To apply 10-15 kilograms of organic fertilizers per m 2.
- To make mineral fertilizers (about 10 grams of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus).
- Form beds of 80x60 centimeters with a soil layer of at least 45 centimeters in thickness.
Soil preparation: the best experience of domestic enterprises
Bogoroditsky Alliance LLC is recognized as a leader in the potato industry. In 2014, the organization became the "Best machine operator" and the "Organization that achieved the best results in crop production" in the Tula region. The high degree of mechanization, the operation of non-clouded systems, the creation of an artificial irrigation system, hydrotechnical measures, the use of modern fertilizers that are safe for the soil allow them to keep the soil in perfect condition - and this bears fruit - huge yields. Since 2013, the company has been implementing a precision farming program.
To maintain the organic balance of the soil, farm employees actively use siderates and plant grassy and earthy crops. To maintain a sufficient amount of minerals, the organization uses high-quality fertilizers based on nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium.